X頻帶互補式金氧半功率放大器設計與實現 Design and Implementation of X-band CMOS Power Amplifiers

Huang, Wang-Lung
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對於射頻收發器系統來說,功率放大器扮演著相當重要的角色,為了達到高輸出功率與高效率,現今,功率放大器的設計以砷化鎵製程(GaAs process)為主。近年來隨著CMOS的進步,射頻電路大部份已經成功整合至CMOS 製程當中,且CMOS具有低功率消耗、低成本、高整合度的優勢,因此本論文將設計及實現三個使用不同功率合成技術的X頻帶互補式金氧半功率放大器。 第一個電路為變壓器功率合成技術之X頻段功率放大器,藉由變壓器實現功率合成而達到較高的輸出功率,量測增益("S" _"21" )為14.189 dB,飽和輸出功率("P" _"sat" )為24.74 dBm,1dB增益壓縮輸出功率(〖"OP" 〗_"1dB" )為16.63 dBm,最高功率附加效率(PAE)為19.9 %,晶片佈局面積為0.56 mm^2。 第二個電路為串聯結合變壓器功率合成技術之X頻段功率放大器,藉由堆疊每一功率元件的電壓,進而抬高整體的輸出電壓及功率,量測增益("S" _"21" )為13.08 dB,飽和輸出功率("P" _"sat" )為26.3 dBm,1dB增益壓縮輸出功率(〖"OP" 〗_"1dB" )為23.3 dBm,最高功率附加效率(PAE)為12.6 %,晶片佈局面積為1.08 mm^2,。 第三個電路為基於變壓器的電流合成技術之X頻段功率放大器,將兩組功率放大器元件直接並聯,藉此提高輸出功率,量測增益("S" _"21" )為13.4 dB,並達到27.3 dBm的飽和輸出功率("P" _"sat" ),23.84 dBm的1dB增益壓縮輸出功率(〖"OP" 〗_"1dB" )及19 %的最高功率附加效率(PAE) ,晶片佈局面積為1.27 mm^2。
Power amplifier (PA) plays an important role in the RF transceiver. Generally, the radio frequency power amplifiers are implemented in GaAs technology for the higher power and efficiency. Recently, the RF circuits have been successfully integrated into the Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) process and CMOS is attractive for low power consumption, low cost and systems-on-a-chip (SoC) applications. Therefore, this thesis designs and implements three X-band CMOS PAs using different power combining techniques. First, an X-band CMOS PA with transformer power combining technique has been designed and implemented. To achieve the higher output power, we utilizing the transformer to implement the power combining. The PA achieves measured small-signal gain("S" _"21" ) is 14.189 dB and maximum saturation output power("P" _"sat" ) is 24.74 dBm. The measured output 1-dB compression point (〖"OP" 〗_"1dB" )is 16.63 dBm and peak power-added efficiency (PAE) is 19.9 %. The chip area is 0.56 mm^2. Second, for higher output power and efficiency, an X-band CMOS PA using series combining transformer to accumulate the voltage of each power device for boosting the output voltage and power has been designed and fabricated. The PA demonstrates a "S" _"21" of 13.08 dB, "P" _"sat" of 26.3 dBm, 〖"OP" 〗_"1dB" of 23.3 dBm and peak PAE of 12.6 %. The chip area is 1.08 mm^2. Finally, an X-band CMOS PA based on transformer utilizes current combining technique, utilizing the current to connect two pairs of power amplifier for higher output power. The PA demonstrates a "S" _"21" of 13.4 dB, "P" _"sat" of 27.3 dBm, 〖"OP" 〗_"1dB" of 23.84 dBm and peak PAE of 19 %. The chip area is 1.27 mm^2.
X頻段, 功率放大器, 變壓器, 互補式金氧化半, 功率合成技術, X-band, power amplifier, transformer, CMOS, power combining techniques