利用空間資訊技術進行紅樹林藍碳量估算

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2022

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聯合國環境署於2009年公布的藍碳報告顯示藍碳海岸生態系統中鹽澤、紅樹林及海草床儲存了大量的藍碳。這些藍碳的面積相對於陸地森林面積相比之下少了許多,但卻蘊藏著是兩倍以上之多的高效固碳。然而這些藍碳每年以34萬至98萬公頃的速度消失,當這些環境被破壞時,估計每年釋放多達10.2億噸二氧化碳,並成為溫室氣體的來源之一。紅樹林是藍碳中地上部密度最高的,更提供供給、支持、調節、文化生態系統服務,持續的推動環境監測、資源調查以及環境教育在紅樹林上是有助於人類福祉與生態系統。淡水河流域有兩個重要的溼地分別為淡水河紅樹林自然保留區和關渡自然保留區,有大範圍的紅樹林出現,但其自然保留區主要保護的對象分別不同,淡水河紅樹林自然保留區主要為保護水筆仔,關渡自然保留區主要為保護水鳥。本研究使用1984至2021年使用Landsat-5、Formosat-2、Landsat-8及Sentinel-2四顆不同衛星載具,使用遙測技術利用光譜在不同地物有不同的光譜之特性作為判釋,本研究使用監督式分類支持向量機(SVM)演算法探討紅樹林分布,並透過影像相減法探討兩個自然保留區近三十年多時序的紅樹林變遷之情形,依照分類後的影像計算紅樹林覆蓋之面積,結合現地調查生物數據,推估藍碳儲存於活株的紅樹林的樹體中的量。本研究成果顯示,淡水河紅樹林自然保留區和關渡自然保留區的紅樹林從1984至2021年的有明顯的變遷之情形,且面積也有成長的趨勢,淡水河紅樹林自然保留區的紅樹林從40.9公頃變遷到49.81公頃的範圍,關渡自然保留區從沼澤地發現紅樹林1.4公頃變遷到39.21公頃的範圍。淡水河紅樹林自然保留區的紅樹林樹體碳儲存有49,216噸的藍碳,關渡自然保留區紅樹林樹體碳儲存有45,109噸的藍碳,顯示有大量的碳儲存於紅樹林樹體之中。
In 2009, the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) published the Blue Carbon Report and the results showed that a large amount of blue carbon is stored of the coastal ecosystem in the three habitats include salt marshes, mangroves, seagrass beds. The area of these blue carbons is much smaller than that of terrestrial forests, but they contain more than twice as much efficient carbon sequestration. But there are a lot of blue carbon disappear at a rate of 340,000 to 980,000 hectares per year, and when these environments are destroyed, it is estimated that as much as 1.02 billion tons of carbon dioxide is released each year and becomes a source of greenhouse gases. Mangroves have the highest density above ground in blue carbon, and provide supply, support, regulation, and cultural ecosystem services. Continuous promotion of environmental monitoring, resource surveys, and environmental education in mangroves contributes to human well-being and ecosystems.There are two important wetlands Danshuei River Mangrove Nature Reserve (DRMNR) and Guandu Nature Reserve (GNR) in Danshuei Rive. There are a large range of mangroves, but the main protection objects of their natural reserves are different. The main protection of Kandelia candel(L.) Druce in DRMNR and the primary protection of waterfowl in GNR. This study uses four different satellites vehicle by Landsat-5, Formosat-2, Landsat-8 and Sentinel-2 during from 1984 to 2021. Using telemetry technology to use the spectral characteristics of different ground objects as a judgment, this study uses a supervised classification support vector machine (SVM) explore the distribution of mangroves. Over the past 30 years, the changes of mangrove forests in the two natural reserves were discussed through image subtraction. The area covered by mangroves was calculated according to the classified images, and the biological data of the field survey was used to estimate the storage of blue carbon in living of mangrove trees.The results of this research, the DRMNR and GNR mangroves are showing significant changes during from 1972 to 2021, and recorded a growing trend in area. The DRMNR has changed from 40.9 hectares to 49.81 hectares; and the GNR has expanded from the original marshland to 39.21 hectares, while the mangrove plants in the DRMNR store 49,216 tons of carbon, while the GNR store 45,109 tons of carbon, show that a large amount of carbon stored in mangrove trees.

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衛星影像, 支持向量機(SVM), 常態化植生指標(NDVI), 紅樹林, 藍碳, Satellite image, Support vector machine, Normalized difference vegetation index, Mangrove, Blue carbon

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