協同教學如何影響高中教師於探究活動實施論證教學的專業發展之個案研究

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2021

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108課綱已於108年8月正式上路,課綱以「核心素養」為課程發展的主軸,在自然科學領域中藉由讓學生透過探究與實作發展其問題解決能力與思考智能,並提升學生的科學素養(教育部,2018)。探究與實作主要項目之一為論證與建模,論證正是能剖析問題、思考對自身或他人論點進行批判與反思的一種過程,也是解決問題所需的能力和素養。故探討如何促進高中生的論證能力將是未來12年國教所關注的重點之一。然而,108課綱中自然科學領域課綱的「探究與實作」是新增的且無強制學校使用送審的課本,教師可以自行設計教材,對學校教師是一項挑戰,故本研究目的主要為探討協同教學如何影響高中教師於探究活動實施論證教學專業發展情形。以個案研究法來深入探討兩位具有教學熱誠的專家與生手教師投入協同教學進行探究與實作課程實踐,本研究焦點著重探討專家教師提供之專業發展策略對生手教師於探究活動課程設計與論證教學實施之專業發展情形。研究結果顯示,專家教師對生手教師專業發展的影響是生手教師具備設計能讓學生學習探究能力的課程、轉換教學模式從講授主導到引導探究及論證教學示範,而生手教師在探究活動課程設計從考量引發探究動機轉變為從探究本質進行考量、教學方式從講授知識為主轉變為引導教學及論證教學策略的轉變等專業發展均有所提升,但生手教師在論證教學未有足夠經驗,面對獨自進行論證教學仍有遲疑。建議未來透過協同教學於探究活動實施論證教學專業發展訓練時間可延長,逐步讓生手教師對論證教學技巧熟捻,面對教學現場能提供論證學習適切引導,故未來研究可針對論證教學引導進行深入研究以落實學校的論證教學。
The 108 Curriculum Guideline has been officially launched in August 2019. It uses"core literacies" as the main axis of curriculum development. Students are expected to develop their problem-solving skills and thinking intelligence through inquiry and hands-on work to enhance their scientific literacy in the science classroom (Ministry of Education, 2018). One of the main tasks of Inquiry and Practice is Argument and Modeling. Argumentation is the process of being able to analyze a problem and think critically and reflectively on one's own or others' arguments as well as theability and literacy needed to solve the problem. Therefore, exploring how to foster the ability of argument among high school students will be one of the major concerns regarding 12-year Basic Education in the future. However, the "Inquiry and Practice" in the Science subject area of the 108 Curriculum Guideline is a new addition and it is not compulsory for schools to use the textbooks submitted for review, so teachers are allowed to design their own materials. This is a challenge for school teachers. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate how collaborative teaching affects the professional development of high school teachers in implementing argumentation teaching in inquiry activities. A case study approach was used to explore the Inquiry and Practice conducted by an expert teacher with a passion for teaching and a novice teacher in an attempt to explore the professional development of high school teachers in using collaborative teaching in inquiry activities to implement argumentation teaching. The study reveals that the expert teacher's influence on the professional development of the novice teacher is to equip the novice teacher with the ability to design lessons that enable students to learn inquiry skills and to change the teaching mode from lecture-led to inquiry-led and evidence-based teaching demonstration. The professional development of the novice teacher has been enhanced in designing the lesson for inquiry activities from consideration of the motivation of inquiry to consideration of the nature of inquiry as well as in changing the teaching mode from lecture-led to inquiry-led and argumentation teaching strategies. However, the novice teacher still remains tentative to conduct argumentation teaching on their own due to insufficient experience in argumentation teaching. This study recommends that the duration of professional development training on argumentation teaching via collaborative teaching in inquiry activities can be extended in the future. In this way, novice teachers will gradually become familiar with the skills for teaching argumentation and will be able to provide appropriate guidance on-site for those who have difficulties in learning argumentation. The subsequent researches can focus on the introduction of argumentation teaching to ensure the implementation of argumentation teaching in schools.

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論證, 論證教學, 教師專業發展, 協同教學, 探究與實作, Argument, Argumentation Instruction, Teacher professional development, Collaborative teaching, Inquiry and Practice

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