自學能力的探索

Abstract

由於目前台灣學生普遍不具有靠自己獨立解決問題的心態與能力,在面對問題和挑戰時,往往缺乏獨自冒險的精神和自主行動的魄力。因此本研究的主要目的,在於探求教師如何培養學生自學物理的能力與心態。為了達成此目的,首先需探究學生自學所需具備的動機與能力?接著探討哪些教學策略能有效培養學生達成自學物理的能力?為了進行此項研究,本研究探討出形成學生自學的五大因素有:動機、信心、能力、策略以及性格。在找出形成自學的因素後,開始研擬培養學生自學能力的教學策略,並挑選受試樣本。研究者挑選具普遍性的八名高中生作為研究對象。測驗工具是由研究者所編的「高中物理科自學成效量表和問卷」,以量化和質性研究方法,探討不同學習成就的學生其自學能力變化的情形。資料分析的方式,除了進行常見的統計方法外,另外由豐富的質性研究資料,對量化不足處提出佐證,最後提出以下結果:使學生發生令他們驕傲或成功的學習經驗,往往能提升他們自學的動機與信心。本研究採用的自學教材---大同資訊版的高中物理課本與教師手冊,能使學生對於學習物理的動機和信心有明顯的提升。當老師對學生有正向評價或是老師經常主動關心學生時,往往能提升學生學習的動機和信心。經常使學生自評學習成效,能使學生普遍養成反省檢討的習慣,並瞭解自己學習策略上的不足。物理發展史、偉人傳記的引入,對學生學習的動機和性格皆有普遍的提升。在學生發生學習障礙時,利用引導的方式幫助學生解決時,能有效提升學生自學的信心、能力、策略和性格。
Due to the reason that Taiwan students generally have no abilities of solving problems independently by themselves, they usually lack of the spirit of taking risks individually and the resolution of spontaneous action in face of the problems as well as the challenges. Therefore, the main goal of this research aims to dig how teachers cultivate their students’ abilities and mindsets in self-studying physics. Under this problem, first we need to research the motivation as well as the abilities students have already acquired for self-study. Secondly, we have to discuss about what are the effective strategies to equip our students with the abilities of self-studying physics. As a result, five big factors concerned with students’ self-study abilities are concluded in order to carry out this research, motivation, confidence, abilities, strategies, as well as characters. After concluding those factors of self-study development, we start to devise the strategies of cultivating students’ self-study abilities, then pick up samples. The researcher selects eight senior high school students of general tendency as the targets.The tool is the questionnaire, edited by the researcher “scales and questionnaire of self-study efficacy on physics of senior high.” By means of the quantitative plus qualitative method to probe into how students of different learning achievement varies in their self-studying. By using the common statistics methods and a large amount of qualitative data which complements the weakness of qualitative method, the final result were as follows, the self-studying materiasl, senior high textbooks and teacher’s guidebook on physics of Kang-Xi version, can apparently raise students leaning motivation and confidence in physics. Firstly, When teachers had positive praise for students or teachers often encourage the students, their learning motivation as well as the confidence could be boosted. In the second place, having students evaluate their own learning efficacy by themselves can develop them with the habit of having deep reflection of themselves, and understand their inefficacy in the use of learning strategies. Moreover, the implement of the developmental history of physics together with Great Men Biographies generally can increase the self-study motivation as well as the characters. Last but not least, when students are stumbled by those learning disorders, the confidence, ability, strategies, and personalities can be effectively elevated by using the inductive way in helping them solve the problems.

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Keywords

自學, 自學能力, 學習成就, self-study, self-study ability, learning achievements

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