3D VR園藝治療對老人身心健康之探討 The effectiveness of 3D VR Horticultural Therapy on older adults' Physical and Mental Health

Lin, Tsung-Yi
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目的:因應養護機構之老人受限於天氣、溫度及場域等因素,無法持續從事各項健康促進活動,本研究擬融入任務科技配適模型(Task-Technology Fit, TTF)來設計一套3D VR園藝治療教學活動課程,以改善老人的健康狀態、生命意義(meaning in life)、知覺被看重(perceived mattering)、憂鬱感、與孤寂感(Loneliness)。 方法:本研究招募65歲以上老人,共計106人,分為實驗組(59人)與對照組(47人),實驗組需接受2個月(8周)的3D VR園藝治療課程介入,對照組則否。兩組各施測三次(前測、後測及追蹤測),分別於介入前、介入完成後、及介入完成後2個月進行第三次的問卷填答。採結構式問卷包含健康狀態、生命意義、知覺被看重、孤寂感、憂鬱感。問卷蒐集完畢後,以廣義估計方程式(Generalized estimating equation, GEE)進行統計及分析。 結果:本研究結的任務科技配適模式(TTF)相關變項之統計結果顯示,參與者多數練習次數為4次或5次以上。另在使用意圖、真實感(realism)、音效(sound)、互動性、及參與程度之結果均顯示參與者對於3D VR園藝治療課程之使用意圖甚高,且與使用次數的相關性達統計顯著水準;多元複迴歸分析結果顯示,參與程度與年齡為練習次數的預測因子。介入成效的部份,身心健康相關指標經GEE分析之後,結果顯示於課程介入後,健康狀態、生命意義、知覺被看重、孤寂感、憂鬱感等健康指標均顯著進步,顯示實驗組接受3D VR園藝治療課程之後,及完成介入後兩個月,其身心健康相關指標之表現均較對照組顯著進步。 結論:本研究為首創之3D VR園藝治療課程,有別於傳統實作之園藝療法,研究結果顯示參與者的健康狀態及各項生命意義指標上於課程介入後均有正向顯著進步,且追蹤測之部分也均有正向之維持呈現。本研究發展課程介入之各變項結果可供後續老人健康促進研究者借鏡參考,另可將本研究所研發之課程加以推廣,讓機構老人可以在虛擬實境中享受園藝活動的操作樂趣增加其生理活動與心理紓壓,成為一適合老人且具教育意義的健康促進工具。
Aim: Older adults in maintenance institutions were limited to climate, temperature, and setting factors, they were not continuing to do many activities on health promotion. The aim of study was to use the course design of three-dimensional (3D) virtual reality (VR) on task-technology with horticultural treatment for improving older adults’ health status, meaning in life, perceived mattering, depression, and loneliness. Methods: A total of 106 older adults were recruited and assigned to either experimental (n = 59) or control (n = 47) groups. Participants in the experimental group received two-month 3D VR Horticultural Therapy, while those in the control group did not receive any intervention. Both groups completed three assessments at the baseline, after completing the intention, and two-month follow-up after completing the intention. A structured questionnaire was used to measure health indicators including the health status, meaning in life, perceived mattering, depression, and loneliness. The experimental group completed assessment related task-technology fit (TTF) additionally. Data analysis were to use a regression and Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) analysis. Results: Based on Pearson’s correlation, TTF variables were associated with each other. The regression results revealed that involvement and age were significant predictors for the times of 3D VR practice. Health status, meaning in life, perceived mattering, depression, and loneliness scores of participants in the intervention group were significantly higher than those of counterparts in the control group after the intervention completion and two-month follow-up after the intervention completion (all p< 0.001), suggesting that older adults in the intervention group had improvement. Conclusion: In this study, the course design of 3D VR on task-technology with horticultural treatment was different from traditional horticultural treatment. The conclusion of study was indicated that older adults’ health status and meaning in life were showed positively significant improvement on pre-posttest and pre-post-posttest. From results, the study will provide some information on older adults’ activities with health promotion for future researchers. In addition, the course design of 3D VR on task-technology with horticultural treatment will be an educational tool with health promotion for older adults in the future.
園藝治療, 3D VR, 老人, 健康促進, TTF, Horticultural Therapy, 3D VR, Older adults, Health promotion, TTF