鷹架式探究課程對學生心智模式和科學解釋之影響:以板塊構造學說為例

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2009

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本研究以準實驗研究法探討不同鷹架設計之教材對於學生心智模式和科學解釋之影響差異。研究對象為臺北市立某高級中學一年級之學生,有效樣本共81人。研究工具為鷹架式探究課程、學習單、晤談單、開放式問答測驗等。整體而言,全體學生在課程前後學生對地球內部結構的概念並無顯著差異,但對板塊運動動力來源和臺灣附近地體構造等的心智模式皆達顯著差異。此結果可能與課程中所使用地震軟體做為視覺輔助之鷹架有關,因為地震軟體可將抽象的板塊運動概念視覺化、具體化,以幫助學生理解。在科學解釋部分,學生除了說明主張並未達顯著外,在提出證據、推理解釋及綜合科學解釋上皆於課程結束後顯著進步。將學生分成兩組實驗組,分別接受本研究所設計之兩種不同鷹架的教材進行教學實驗,研究結果顯示兩組學生在地球內部結構和板塊運動動力來源的心智模式、說明主張皆無顯著差異;但是,兩組學生在臺灣附近的地體構造的心智模式、提出證據、推理解釋以及綜合科學解釋等皆達顯著差異,即接受完整鷹架教學之學生,進步幅度高於接受簡單鷹架教學之組別,主要是因為完整鷹架的教材中的學習單所提供之文字提示能將學習任務由簡單到複雜逐步引導學生完成探究,並且能夠輔助學生理解視覺軟體(地震軟體)中的表徵意義及其背後的科學意涵。
This study aims to examine the effects of different scaffolds on student mental model and scientific explanation through the data analysis of worksheets, interviews, and students’ responses of open-end questions. After adopting experiment methodology, the researchers selected 81 tenth graders at Taipei city as participants to receive the scaffolding inquiry curriculum in the topic of tectonics. The main results indicated that student’s mental models of earth inner structure had no significant difference before and after the curriculum, but in the plate dynamics and terrain structure in Taiwan area were had significant improved after the curriculum. It is possibly because the earthquake software provided visualizations to help students reveal underlying meaning of the data. For scientific explanatory, the students had significantly improved in the overall scientific explanation, describing supporting evidences, and reasoning. After grouping students into two experimental groups, two versions of the scaffolding inquiry curriculum including complete scaffolding and simply scaffolding were administrated. The results showed that the students in the complete scaffolding group performed no significantly different than those in the simple scaffolding group in their mental models of earth inner structure and the plate dynamics. However, the students in the complete scaffolding group performed significantly better in the mental model of terrain structure nearby Taiwan, describing supporting evidences, reasoning and overall scientific explanation. It is because that the complete scaffolding version provided written prompts in the activity sheets to help students inquiry from simple to complex tasks and to guide them to reveal the meaning of representations in the visualization tool which could promote students’ constructing correct mental models and reasoning based on evidences.

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科學探究, 鷹架, 心智模式, 科學解釋, Scientific Inquiry, Scaffolding, Mental Model, Scientific Explanation

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