Hirsch文化素養教育 A Study on E. D. Hirsch, Jr.’s Cultural Literacy Education

本研究旨在以詮釋學及批判理論方法探討E. D.Hirsch, Jr.之文化素養教育理論。具體而言,本研究目的包括四項:(一)瞭解Hirsch文化素養教育理論之歷史背景及其理論淵源;(二)分析Hirsch文化素養教育之知識論基礎;(三)探究Hirsch文化素養教育之課程理念及其實踐成效之評估;(四)綜合前述分析,衡酌我國教育發展現狀,擬具可行之建議。本研究之結果包括:其理論發展背景與理論淵源涉及美國1980年代課程偏頗現象,及對該現象之批判,且其取向近似於博雅/通識教育觀點。Hirsch以社會學及語言學為基礎,而文化素養教育以國家語言與國家文化為內涵,並重視教育公平性及正義課題。其中認知主體與認知客體為循環發展關係,認知主體不斷開展出主體性,認知客體亦隨之不斷發展。文化素養教育之落實則透過核心知識基金會來完成,而其核心知識課程領域則分為:語言(Language Arts/ English)、史地(History and Geography)、視覺藝術(Visual Arts)、音樂(Music)、數學(Mathematics)、以及科學(Science)等。相關研究顯示出該課程為相當有效之學習系統,並能有效提升學生知能及促進教育之公平性。在台灣推展教育方面,吾人應重視並規劃台灣本身文化素養教育之內涵,且參考Hirsch文化素養教育及核心知識課程方式,建立相關組織且回歸教育專業自主,以發展課程並確保學生基本知能及促進教育之公平性。
Through the methods of hermeneutics and critical theory, the study attempts to deal with E. D. Hirsch, Jr.’s theory on cultural literacy education. The objectives of the study includes: (a) to understand the historical background and theoretical origin of Hirsch, Jr.’s theory on cultural literacy education; (b) to analyze the foundation of Hirsch, Jr.’s theory; (c) to interpret both Hirsch, Jr.’s ideas of curriculum for cultural literacy education and related assessment of its effectiveness; (d) to propose recommendations based on the above findings , considering current situation and development of education in Taiwan. The results includes: the historical background and theoretical origin of his theory involve the problems of American school curriculum in 1980s and the critiques on them with the tendency of liberal / general education. The foundation includes sociology and linguistics. The content of cultural literacy education consists of national language and national culture, whereas the issues of it focus on educational equality and justice. The subject and object in knowing develop in cyclic fashion, both continuously progressing. The cultural literacy education is implemented with the support of Core Knowledge Foundation. Core knowledge curriculum is composed of domains of Language Arts/ English, History and Geography, Visual Arts, Music, Mathematics, and Science. Evidences from related researches show such curriculum is a rather effective learning system, enhancing knowledge and abilities and promoting educational equality. The study recommends the content of cultural literacy education in Taiwan should be emphasized and planed. Hirsch, Jr.’s theory might provide a suitable frame of reference to develop curriculum ensuring students’ basic knowledge and abilities and promoting educational equality. Establishing related organizations and returning to professional autonomy of education are also necessary.
E. D. Hirsch, Jr., 文化素養教育, 核心知識課程, 博雅教育, 通識教育, E.D. Hirsch, Jr., cultural literacy education, core knowledge curriculum, liberal education, general education