激發心靈潛能----以正向心理學內涵建構情義教育內容之研究

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2004

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1 中文摘要 本研究之主要目的有三(1)以正向心理學內涵建構適合國小學童學習之 情意教育課程。(2)以量化研究方式探討此一課程對國小五年級學生正向情 緒、正向意義、樂觀及內在動機之影響。(3)以質化研究方式說明師生互動 的歷程,再透過自我調節論的觀點分析學生在學習歷程中的轉變,並以訪 談方式分析學生在情意教育中的學習歷程,最後從問卷中了解學生對情意 教育的接受度、應用及成效。 本研究之研究對象為平安國小五年級學生,實驗組學生接受為期十一 週每週兩次融入情意教育之綜合活動課程,對照組則接受一般之綜合活動 課程,研究工具包括樂觀信念量表及研究者自編的正向情緒量表、正向意 義量表及學習動機量表,量化研究採用單因子共變數分析進行統計檢定, 研究結果如下:(1)在立即效果部份,實驗組在正向情緒、正向意義、內在動 機及樂觀四方面均顯著優於對照組;(2)在追蹤效果部份,實驗組在正向情 緒、正向意義、內在動機及樂觀四方面均顯著優於對照組。 質化研究的部分採用觀察、問卷、訪談、文件蒐集、錄音錄影等多元 方式蒐集資料,記錄師生互動的歷程,並將學生學習之歷程,分為「自我 涉入」、「自我覺察:」「認知評估」「自我應用」「自我增強」五個階段, 再以自我調節論的觀點輔以百分比次數統計以了解學生教學前後的轉變, 茲說明如下: (1) 在「自信」方面,分為「自我肯定」和「欣賞別人」兩部分。在自 我肯定的部份,學生從被動或不知如何使用策略找出自己的優點, 逐漸進步到採取主動策略以找出自己的優點;欣賞別人的部分,學 生在教學後學生欣賞同學的角度,逐漸從教學前的外在因素(86%)轉 為內在因素(91%),亦即教學後逐漸能了解應該從內在特質來欣賞別 人,欣賞別人的部份從外在美的角度提升到重視同學的內在特質。 (2) 在「同理心」方面,教學前學生助人、分享、給予行為的動機大多 是外在動機因素(30%),經過同理心教學之後,基於行動者內在動機 因素的提昇到60%,外在動機的學生從30%下降至19%。 2 3)在「知足」方面,發現教學前學生對自己所擁有的一切,感到滿意的 學生僅占37%,在教學後有89%的學生都覺得自己擁有的已經太多, 要心存感恩。從「買賣遊戲」活動中,了解學生價值觀的轉變,原 本所有學生都偏重物質需求,在「知足」教學後,有85%的學生外 在的慾望逐漸減少,取而代之的是精神上的滿足。 (4) 在「正向意義」方面,可以分為以下三種價值觀的建立:經驗性價值 部分,教學前透過「我的最愛」活動了解學生對愛的解讀,結果發 現68%的學生是基於外在價值,只有12%的學生最愛某一物品的原 因是因為它的內在價值勝於一切,教學之後有94%的學生重視所愛 物品的內在價值,可見學生逐漸了解愛的真諦;創造性價值部分, 孩子在教學之後,平常表現良好的動機主要來自內在動機,約佔全 數之92%,較原先的23%相較,明顯提昇許多,特別是出現23%的利 他動機,是教學前學生沒有的想法;態度性價值部分,教學之後, 對負面事件產生正向想法的學生從42%提升到68%,其中能找到正向 意義,亦即感到自己能從負面事件中學習或得到收穫的學生從6%提 升到33%,負向想法從41%下降到32%。 (5)在「樂觀」方面,教學前採取負向策略方式約占59%,採取正向策略 方式約占31%,在教學後面對困擾事件採取負向策略方式從59%下降至 8%,採取正向策略方式從31%上升至92%,特別是「解決問題」的因應 方式從9%上升至35%,成為學生最主要的因應方式。 最後,研究者歸納研究結論,並提出研究結果之應用及未來相關 研究之建議,作為教學應用及未來研究之參考。
3 The purposes of this study were :(1)to design the affective education curriculum of positive psychology blended with synthetic activity curriculum for fifth-grade students;(2)to use quantitative method to investigate the immediate and following effects of the affective education curriculum of positive psychology for fifth-grade students;(3)to use qualitative method to analyse the interaction between teachers and students,the shifts of self-regulation process,the learning process,and the understanding of the students’ acception . For these purposes,the subjects of this study were two groups of fifth-grade students from one public primary school in Taipei County.There were 35 students of experimental group and 35 students of control group.Each group was examined with optimism scale, positive emotion scale,positive meaning scale,and learning motivation scale.The experimental group had the blending courses,while the control group had only synthetic activity curriculum.The collected data were analyzed by one-way ANCOVA.The results were as follows:(1)for immediate effects ,there were significant difference between two groups on optimism scale, positive emotion scale,positive meaning scale,and learning motivation scale;(2) for follow effects , there were significant difference between two groups on optimism scale, positive emotion scale,positive meaning scale,and learning motivation scale. Qualitative method was used for the second part of this study,including observation,inventory, interview,documents analysis,recording and video.With qualitative method , the interaction between the teacher and students could be recorded in detail.The learning processes were divided into five stages,which were self-involvement, self-awareness ,cognition-appraisal ,self-application and self-reinforcement.The reasercher also used self-regulation theory to analyze the shifts of the students. The results were as follows: In “ self-confidence ” , incluing “ self-affirmation ” and “ appreciation ” .The students did not know how to use strategies for self-advantages before affective education curriculum ,they gradually realized to 4 use strategies for self-advantages after this curriculum. Appreciation focuses on the students’ inner characteristics,which means the students know how to appreciate other people from out side factor to inner factor after this curriculum. In“sympathy”, most of the students used to have altruistic behavior for other people’s prise,rewards,and feedback before this affective education curriculum.After this designed curriculum, they gradually realize “help the others is the foundation of the happiness”,and perform altruistic behavior for instrinic motivation. In“contement”, 63% of the students felt ordinary or did not content with what they had owned,but 89% felt satistied with what they owned after this affective education curriculum. In“positive meaning”,it inclusive of“experience value”,“creative value”,and“attitude value”.94% of the students knew the meaning of love from “experience value”.92% of the students knew the instrinic motivation of daily routines from “creative value”. 68% of the students with positive emotion and could find benefit from “attitude value”. In“optimism”, 31% of the students used positive strategies before this affective education curriculum ,92% of the students used positive strategies after this affective education curriculum, “problem solving”became primary style after this affective education curriculum. To sum up,the results of both quantitative and qualitative studies support the affective education curriculum of positive psychology.This study also offers a discussion on instructional assistance and future studies.

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心靈潛能, 心理學, 情意教育

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