不同助跑角度足球定位踢遠之運動學分析 Biomechanical Analysis of Soccer Place Kicking From Different Approach Angles

Date
2003
Authors
沈進益
Jin-Yi Shen
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Abstract
摘 要 本研究的目的是比較四種不同助跑角度(0°、45°、90°與習慣角度)定位踢遠時運動學的差異性。八名男性大專甲組足球球員(年齡平均為20.25 ±0.71歲)以三步助跑的方式進行踢遠。以兩部Redlake高速攝影機(250Hz)同步拍攝動作資料。使用Kown3D影像分析軟體取得3-D運動學資料,以重複量數單因子變異數進行比較,並以皮爾遜積差相關考驗其相關性。研究的顯著水準訂為α=.05。 研究結果如下,習慣角度的助跑角度為34.3±3.5度,踢遠距離為47.90公尺,球速為27.32±1.18 ms-1,足尖的線速度最大值為18.03±0.74 ms-1,而足尖踢球瞬間的線速度為16.90±0.67 ms-1。結果顯示,90度和0度的在球速、足尖速度二項變數與習慣角度達顯著差異,證實了此兩種助跑方式不利於踢遠。而45度與習慣角度間的比較,則未有參數達顯著水準,推論此兩種助跑方式相近,所以動作的差異性不大。然而,在習慣角度時有較大的平均值。在相關係數考驗中,發現與球速達顯著相關的參數有:步幅、擺動時間、重心速度及髖、膝、足尖的線性速度和最大線性速度達顯著相關,但絕對角速度與球速沒有顯著相關。 本研究建議踢遠時的助跑角度範圍為30~38度。往後研究應深入瞭解踢遠動作的動力學變化,亦可比較射門與踢遠動作上的差異性,以提供相關研究與教學上運用。
ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to compare the performance of four different approach(0°,45°,90°and regular angle)for ground kicking by eight collegiate soccer players. Everyone were required to take a three-step run-up to kick the ball from four different angle of approach. Two high-speed camera(Redlake, 250 Hz)were synchronized to collect the 3-D data. The 3-D kinematics data was calculated by Kwon3D analysis system. And a repeated one-way ANOVA and the Pearson product moment correlation were used to test the selected variables at .05 significant level. The results shown as follows. The regular approach angle was averaged 34.3±3.5°, the flight distance of soccer ball distance was averaged 47.90 m, the initial velocity of soccer ball was 27.32±1.18 ms-1, maximum linear velocity of the toe was 18.03±0.74 ms-1 and the velocity of toe at impact was 16.90±0.67 ms-1. There were found significant differences at the regular approach angle that ball velocity and linear velocity of the toe compared with 0° and 90°. In the results we found not easy for kicking far at approach angle of 0° and 90°. Although there were no significant differences between 45° and the regular angle, however, the mean values at the regular approach angle was more than 45°. In correlation test, several variables had significant relations with ball volecity. The variables were: the last approach stride, the time from right toe-off to ball impact, the velocity of center of mass(C. M.) at ball impact, the linear velocity of hip, knee, toe. But we had not found significant relations the absolute angular velocity with ball velocity. We conclude that the regular approach angle is better to perform the place kicking, and the suggest the angle range was 30~38°. Further study should focus on the kinetics of place kicking and compare the difference between instep kicking and place kicking.
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Keywords
足球, 定位踢遠, 運動學, 三度空間, 生物力學, soccer, place kicking, kinematics, Three-dimensional, biomechanics
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