運用成語故事語境之中級漢字課程設計

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2011

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近年來,華語文教學有了長足的發展,在學者們的努力之下,取得了令人矚目的成績,對外漢字教學研究上也越來越受到重視。漢字教學課程、外國學生漢字學習難點以及漢字教材開發不足的種種問題浮現之後,引起了學者們對於漢字課程的關注,進而結合各領域的研究成果,著手進行漢字教學各方面的相關研究。本研究試圖在第二語言漢字教學中融入成語故事的教學,以成語故事引發漢字學習興趣,進而學習漢字認讀與書寫。 本研究主要針對中級歐美學生進行漢字課程研究及設計,在研究的過程中,首先蒐集相關學理,進行研讀及批判;其次針對台師大國語中心的漢字課程進行觀摩與分析,了解台灣的漢字教學情形。接著,分析現有對外漢字教材,包括綜合性質的教材及獨立的漢字教材。此外,為了瞭解師生對漢字課程的需求,分別對八位華語老師及八位歐美學生進行師生需求分析。最後結合研究過程中的各項結果,設計出針對中級歐美學生之漢字課程。 經過課程的研究及設計之後,本研究得出幾點結論:一、提出針對中級歐美學生之漢字課程規劃;二、提出對外漢字教學中級階段教學要點;三、建立以字帶詞、以字帶字、由詞識字的教學模式;四、運用部首、部件概念導入漢字教學;五、富含故事的成語加深漢字學習趣味,成語故事有助於學生記憶漢字字義,也引發學生加以聯想,對於漢字字義、字形、字音的學習有其助益。除此之外,本研究也期許在華語教學領域,能夠加深漢字學習策略的研究,幫助歐美學生更快的學好漢字,有效培養學生記憶漢字,還要重視漢字教學方法的運用;另外,也希望未來能夠開發具趣味性及實用性的漢字教材,從學生的角度來看如何更容易記住漢字字形,將漢字教材的內容融合趣味性、漢字的系統性,如此一來,漢字學習對歐美學生而言不再寸步難行。
Chinese language teaching has recently shown considerable development and made remarkable achievements under the efforts put in by the scholars; as a result, the research on Chinese characters teaching is drawing an increased number of attentions. Scholars have raised concerns for Chinese characters teaching after the various problems such as Chinese character teaching curriculum, difficulty for foreign students learning Chinese characters and lack of development for Chinese textbooks have surfaced. Consequently, further researches have been conducted to combine study results from various fields which start with the relevant studies related to the different aspects of Chinese characters teaching. The study attempts to integrate idiomatic expressions (chengyu) teaching in the teaching Chinese as a foreign language, to start with idioms as Chinese character teaching, raise interests in learning Chinese characters and thereby study the reading the writing of Chinese characters. The study emphasized on the research and design of Chinese character curriculum on intermediate level of European-American students. The study first collected relevant theories in the research process before studying and criticizing. Secondly the paper underwent observation and analysis on the Chinese character course at the Mandarin Training Center of National Taiwan Normal University, in order to understand the status of Chinese character teaching in Taiwan. The study then analyzed all Chinese textbooks including comprehensive textbooks and independent Chinese character textbooks. In addition, the study adopted one-on-one interview with teacher-student requirement analysis to understand their requirement for Chinese character curriculum. Finally the study combined the various results from the research process and deigned a Chinese character curriculum specifically designed for European-American students. The study drew the following conclusions from the curriculum research and design: 1. Propose Chinese character curriculum outline for European-American students. 2. Propose the teaching points of introduction to the intermediate stage of Chinese character teaching. 3. Establish a teaching model that uses words to lead to vocabulary. 4. Apply concepts of strokes or character parts into Chinese character teaching. 5. Use idioms with stories to enhance the fun of Chinese character learning. Idioms may help students memorizing the meaning of Chinese characters and will also stimulate students with association, thereby contribute to the learning of Chinese character meaning, compound and sound. In addition, the study also expects to conduct research on enhancing the strategies in Chinese character learning in the Chinese language teaching field which will help European-American students learn Chinese characters with faster and better methods by effectively develop students’ memorization of Chinese characters as well as emphasizing on the implementation of Chinese character teaching methods. Moreover, the study expects to develop fun and practical Chinese character textbooks in the future, viewing from the students’ perspective to determine the easiest method to memorize the Chinese character compounds and to integrate fun and systematic Chinese characters with the textbook content. As a result, the Chinese character learning will not be difficult for European-American students.

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漢字教學, 課程設計, 中級, 成語, Chinese Characters Teaching, Curriculum Design, Intermediate Level, Idiomatic Expressions

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