Weber與Habermas的合理性理論及其教育蘊義之比較 Weber’s and Habermas’ theories of rationality and their implications in education

dc.contributor 楊深坑 zh_TW
dc.contributor Yang Shen Keng en_US 蘇明燦 zh_TW Su Ming Tsan en_US 2019-08-28T09:41:58Z 2011-11-17 2019-08-28T09:41:58Z 2009
dc.description.abstract 摘 要 本研究旨在分析並比較Weber與Habermas的合理性理論及其教育蘊義。為瞭解兩者理性概念的立足點,首先探討兩者對西方理性意義發展的反省,以釐清兩者理性概念的承襲脈絡。接著分析並比較兩者論理性化的困境與出路,並依二者的理論架構探討並比較其教育蘊義。最後則針對二者的觀點加以評論,並提出較整全的合理性理論及教育設計,以供教育理論與實際工作者參考。本研究有以下結論: 一、Weber與Habermas的思想都承繼歐洲理性主義的傳統,尤其是啟蒙的思想。但Weber另受到新Kant學派價值哲學的影響,認為理性無法解決價值領域的問題。Habermas則特別重視語言的角色與理性的解放功能,提出溝通理性,來重建啟蒙理性。 二、針對理性化困境的分析,Weber與Habermas都觀察到以系統性、控制性、技術性、及可計算性為核心的理性化發展是社會的發展趨勢。亦皆認為現代社會的最大困境在於理性的偏枯發展所導致的主體自由受到威脅,及人際間可能產生的理念或利益的衝突。Haber -mas身處晚期資本主義社會,因此比Weber又多注意到由於理性技術化發展產生的社會危機及理性自身遭受後現代理論的攻擊。Weber認為現代人已難以從這個空前發展的理性化社會中脫身。Habermas認為理性技術化的發展及系統對生活世界的殖民日漸加深,公共領域也無法真正成為一個理性論辯的空間。 三、對於理性化困境的出路,在個人行動層次,Weber提出結合 良心倫理與責任倫理的行動原則。Habermas認為要解決現代社會的困境,必須開展人的溝通理性。在制度層次Weber提出公投民主制,Habermas提出審議式民主作為當代民主政治的運作機制。 綜合上述的分析,從行動者的角度出發,合理性應具有三個層面的內涵:一個有理性氣質或涵養的人必須具有融合良心倫理與責任倫理的行動力、具有與他人溝通與論辯的能力、及具有包容、尊重等道德涵養與氣質。由具有此理性特質的行動者開展出的社會才是真正合理性的社會。本研究即依此結論,提出在教育上的建議。(一)教育目的在開展人的理性能力,這種理性能力應展現在具備專門職業技能、慎思明辨的判斷力、及成熟公民的道德涵養。(二)教育的內容應兼顧專門教育與通識教育。(三)規劃具有理想言說情境特色的教學空間。(四)教育行政組織的運作應注重領導者的角色,但也應融 入溝通理性作為活化組織的動力。(五)教育改革應兼顧責任倫理、良心倫理及溝通倫理。 關鍵詞:溝通理性、責任倫理、良心倫理、審議式民主、公投民主制 zh_TW
dc.description.abstract Weber’s and Habermas’ theories of rationality and their implications in education Abstract This research aims at studying and comparing Weber’s and Habermas’ theories of rationality and their implications in education. The study begins with an introspection of the meanings of the philosophical core concept “ reason“ in western history of philosophy in order to understand the foundation of the two masters’ thoughts. Then explore and compare the two masters’ diagnosis of modernity and how to settle the predicaments of rationalization. Finally, probe into the implications in education. Based on the above discussion, some conclusions are brought up as follows: First, Weber’s and Habermas’ concepts of rationality are derived from the tradition of the western rationalism, especially the thought of the Enlightentment. Besides, Weber is influenced by Baden School in neo-Kant School. Habermas especially pays attention to the role of language. Second, with regard to the predicaments, both Weber and Habermas think that the development of social rationalization has led to the development of technicalization .This trend causes the loss of freedom and the conflict of the ideas or interests among persons . Habermas further notices various kinds of crises produced in late-capitalist society . Moreover, the inappropriate use of reason has also been subjected to fierce criticism.Weber thinks it is very difficult to get away from this trendency. Habermas thinks the colonization of the lifeworld is strengthening day by day. Third, to solve the predicaments, Weber proposes to combine the ethics of conviction and responsibility. He adovacates a democracy of plebiscite. Habermas thinks developing people’s communicative rationality is the only way to solve the predicaments of the modern society. He thinks ideal democracy should be deliberative democracy. By synthesizing the above-mentioned analyses, the person with the ability to take rational action should be able to integrate the ethics of conviction and responsibility, to use communicative rationality, and to act with good morality and disposition. With these, the ideal rational society will come true. Finally this study proposes some suggestions in education. (a) The purpose of education should lie in cultivating the person with the ability to act rationally. (b) The teaching material should include professional and general education. (c) The classroom and teaching process should be an ideal speech situation. (d) Communicative rationality should be used in the management of educational administrative organization in order to correct the shortcomings of bureaucracy. (e) The ethics of conviction and responsibility, and communicative ethic should be put into consideration in educational reform. Keywords: communicative rationality, the ethic of conviction, the ethic of responsibility,deliberative democracy, a demo -cracy of plebiscite en_US
dc.description.sponsorship 教育學系 zh_TW
dc.identifier GN0890000016
dc.language 中文
dc.subject 溝通理性 zh_TW
dc.subject 責任倫理 zh_TW
dc.subject 良心倫理 zh_TW
dc.subject 審議式民主制 zh_TW
dc.subject 公投民主制 zh_TW
dc.subject communicative rationality en_US
dc.subject the ethic of conviction en_US
dc.subject the ethic of responsibility en_US
dc.subject deliberative democracy en_US
dc.subject a democracy of plebiscite en_US
dc.title Weber與Habermas的合理性理論及其教育蘊義之比較 zh_TW
dc.title Weber’s and Habermas’ theories of rationality and their implications in education en_US
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