奮力控制方案對幼兒專注力提升效果的探討

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2021

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本研究旨在發展適合幼兒的奮力控制方案,瞭解幼兒專注力目前水準,探討奮力控制方案對幼兒專注力提升的成效,以及個人變項不同幼兒專注力的差異。 以新北市兩所非營利幼兒園為取樣對象,其中一所幼兒園的兩個班級為實驗組,而另一所幼兒園的兩個班級為對照組,排除一位中途退出研究的幼兒,共61位幼兒完成前測、後測和後後測(實驗組31位,對照組30位)。實驗階段,實驗組幼兒參與為期八週,共三十二次的方案介入,對照組幼兒則沒有參與任何實驗。研究工具採用NeuroSky 腦波檢測儀蒐集幼兒專注力資料。在奮力控制方案介入的前、後一週對實驗組與對照組進行前測與後測,並於實驗結束後四週對實驗組和對照組進行後後測。透過SPSS23.0的統計分析,本研究的結果如下: 一、奮力控制方案的實驗介入後,與對照組比較,實驗組幼兒的專注力並無 顯著的立即改變效果。 二、奮力控制方案的實驗介入,實驗後四週與對照組比較,實驗組幼兒的專 注力具有顯著的保留效果。 三、奮力控制方案的實驗介入,對實驗組幼兒而言,僅有low beta波有顯 著的改變,但在奮力控制方案結束四週後實驗組幼兒的專注力數值high alpha、low beta和high beta均顯著優於活動介入前。 四、奮力控制方案的實驗介入,性別不同,實驗組幼兒在後後測的 highbeta具有顯著的差異。女生改變較明顯,平均值低於男生。 五、奮力控制方案的實驗介入,年齡不同,實驗組幼兒的專注力表現在後測 與後後測均未有顯著差異。 六、奮力控制的實驗介入,家庭社經地位不同,實驗組幼兒在後測的腦波有 顯著的改變。在low alpha中,高家庭社經地位幼兒的專注力數值改變 較明顯,平均低於中家庭社經地位;中家庭社經地位幼兒low beta波 的專注力數值改變較明顯,平均低於低家庭社經地位的幼兒。
Developing adequate methods of the effortful control program, the purposes of this study were to understand the average level of preschoolers’ attention, discussthe improving outcomes of the effortful control program on preschoolers’ attention, and examine the differences of gender, age, SES on the preschoolers’ attention. The subjects came from four classes of the two non-profit preschools in New Taipei City Taiwan. Two of them were in the experimental group, and the other two classes were in the control group. Except for one kid who dropped out halfway through the experiment, a total of sixty-one preschoolers participated in this study. The survey included pretest, posttest, and post-posttest. Pretests were conducted one week before the effort control program joined. Posttests happened one week after the intervention. Post-posttests were sent out four weeks after the effort control program joined. With the intervention of effortful control program, thirty-one preschoolers in the experimental group had thrity-two activities taught by the researcher. The activities included effortful control elements were conducted four to five times a week for eight consecutive weeks. Thirty preschoolers in the control group had not requested any test. The NeuroSky brainwave starter was used to collect preschoolers’ attention data. Through the analysis of SPSS 23.0, five results of this study were summarized as follows: 1.Compared with the control group, there was no significant change to the attention level sign of the experimental group after the effortful control was inserted. 2.Compared with the control group, there was a significant retention effect to the attention level signs of the experimental group after four weeks the effortful control was intervened. 3.There was a significant difference to the low beta wave of the experimental group after effortful control was intervened. However, , the attention level signs of high alpha wave, low beta wave, and high beta wave in post-posttest were significantly lower than the signs in the pretest. 4.After effortful control was intervened, there was a significant difference in the high beta signs of post- posttest between gender in the experimental group. That is, the average high beta signs of the girls were lower than the boy’s high beta signs. 5.When the preschooler’s age was different, there were no difference to the attention signs performance were between posttest and post-posttest. 6.After effortful control was intervened, there was a significant difference in the low alpha and low beta signs of posttest between family and social economic statuses in the experimental group. That is, the average low alpha signs of the high family and social economic statuses were lower than the signs of the middle family and social economic statuses. The average low beta signs of the middle family and social economic statuses were lower than the signs of the low family and social economic statuses.

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幼兒, 準實驗研究, 專注力, 奮力控制, preschoolers, quasi-experimental reseacch design, attention, effortful control

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