戶外冒險教育課程對大學生心理賦能之研究

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2023

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為培養大學生維持與控制自己學習狀況的行動與決策能力,並承擔起與學習相關的責任,高等教育需要提供賦能的學習環境,而戶外冒險教育課程是可以考慮的教學策略之一。本研究以證據為本,心理賦能為導向,設計一門在高等教育執行的戶外冒險教育課程,採用不等組準實驗研究設計,先進行前導研究確定課程的可行性與有效性,進而在正式研究中以質量混合研究方法衡量該課程對大學生心理賦能的有效性與延續性成果,並探究有課程設計策略與心理賦能的關係。實驗組50人,對照組25人,共有75名研究參與者。研究結果顯示,實驗組參與者心理賦能及其各維度 (影響力、勝任感、意義感以及自我決定) 的後測分數皆顯著比前測分數來的高;在與對照組的比較方面,在排除前測分數影響後,實驗組參與者在心理賦能總量表及影響力、意義感兩個維度的分數均顯著優於無參加課程之對照組。在質性研究結果方面也蒐集到能夠與量化研究結果相呼應與補充的成果;在後續訪談及其他文本資料分析中也發現,實驗組參與者不僅在課程中有心理賦能的表現,課程結束後在正向人際關係、自我掌控以及學習典範等方面也有延續性的學習遷移表現。本研究之戶外冒險教育課程實驗課程的課程設計策略 (包含:創造參與&支持的環境、挑戰&勝任的過程、自主&當責的過程以及換位思考&賦予意義的過程) 與大學生心理賦能效益具有因果關係。除此之外,本研究也發現課程帶領者在課程設計的結構賦權措施/機制與參與者心理賦能結果之間亦扮演關鍵的角色,之於課程角度的結構賦權方面,課程帶領者是否能貫徹課程設計的理念並有效執行將直接影響課程設計策略的有效程度;之於參與者角度的心理賦能方面,課程帶領者對於課程學習團隊的建立,以及帶領參與者進行個人或團體引導反思的歷程也起了關鍵作用,兩者相互影響,彼此成就,間接地影響參與者心理賦能的感知與後續行動。
To cultivate college students' ability to maintain and control their own learning situations and decision-making, as well as to assume responsibility for learning, higher education needs to provide an empowering learning environment. Outdoor adventure education programs can be considered as one of the instructional strategies. This study, based on evidence and guided by psychological empowerment, designed an outdoor adventure education program implemented in higher education. A non-equivalent control group quasi-experimental research design was employed. A pilot study was conducted to determine the feasibility and effectiveness of the program, followed by a formal study using a mixed-methods research approach to measure the effectiveness and sustained outcomes of the program on college students' psychological empowerment. The study also explored the relationship between programming strategies and psychological empowerment. There was a total of 75 participants, with 50 in the experimental group and 25 in the control group. The results showed that the post-test scores of psychological empowerments and its dimensions (impact, competence, meaningfulness, and self-determination) for participants in the experimental group were significantly higher than the pre-test scores. When comparing with the control group, after controlling for pre-test scores, participants in the experimental group showed significantly higher scores on the total psychological empowerment scale, as well as the dimensions of impact and meaningfulness, compared to the control group who did not participate in the program. The qualitative research results complemented and supported the quantitative findings. In the subsequent interviews and analysis of other textual data, it was also found that participants in the experimental group not only demonstrated psychological empowerment during the program but also exhibited sustained transfer of learning in positive interpersonal relationships, self-control, and learning paradigms after the program. The programming strategies of this outdoor adventure education program (including creating an environment of engagement and support, challenging and mastering the process, fostering autonomy and accountability, and engaging in perspective-taking and generalizing meaning) had a causal relationship with the benefits of college students' psychological empowerment. In addition, the study found that the role of program instructors between the structural empowerment measures/mechanisms of programming and participants’ psychological empowerment outcomes was crucial. From the perspective of program structure, whether the program instructors could implement the programming concepts and execute effectively directly influenced the effectiveness of the programming strategies. From the perspective of participants' psychological empowerment, the role of instructors was crucial in establishing learning teams and facilitating participants through the process of individual or group reflective inquiry. These two aspects influenced each other and indirectly affected participants' perception of psychological empowerment and subsequent actions.

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戶外冒險教育課程, 心理賦能, 不等組準實驗研究, 混合研究設計, outdoor adventure education program, psychological empowerment, non-equivalent control group quasi-experimental research, mixed-methods research design

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