頓悟性問題解題歷程之眼動分析

Abstract

表徵轉換理論(Knoblich, Ohlsson, Haider,& Rhenius, 1999)主張頓悟來自於轉換無效問題表徵。為了檢驗該主張,Knoblich等(2001)使用火柴棒算術問題作業,發現成功組於關鍵區域的凝視時間百分比隨解題時段增加,而不成功組則無。不同於Knoblich等僅分析關鍵區域,本研究則分析參與者於關鍵、固著與其他區域之凝視時間分配在不同解題時段的轉變,以考驗頓悟性問題之解題是否繫於無效問題表徵的轉換。此外,表徵轉換理論認為個體接觸問題後會形成無效問題表徵,但並未視固著無效問題表徵程度為影響問題表徵轉換之因素。因此,本研究將確認固著無效問題表徵程度與表徵轉換的因果關係。本研究進行兩個實驗,在實驗一,紀錄38位參與者於解答火柴棒算術問題圖時的眼動資料,比較成功組與不成功組在不同問題元素區域與不同解題時段之凝視時間百分比;而為了確認個體無效問題表徵的固著程度與表徵轉換之因果關係,在實驗二,則以注意引導的操弄方式,將94位參與者分派至三種實驗處理:閃爍固著區域組、閃爍關鍵區域組與無處理的控制組,期能分別促進參與者有效與無效問題表徵,並觀察參與者的答題表現與眼動軌跡。主要結果有二,第一,發現解題成功組有發生無效問題表徵的轉換,而不成功組則無,並且不成功組於初期形成無效問題表徵,成功組則無。第二,發現在解題困境時期,成功組於無效問題表徵之固著程度高於不成功組,並且閃爍固著區域組之答題表現較閃爍關鍵區域組差。研究結果顯示,無效問題表徵的轉換為解決頓悟性問題解題的關鍵特徵,並支持無效問題表徵之固著程度與頓悟性問題表徵轉換的因果關係,以擴展表徵轉換理論。
Representational Change Theory (Knoblich, Ohlsson, Haider,& Rhenius, 1999) claims that constructing the invalid presentation of insight problem causes insight. To examine the notion, Knoblich et al.(2001) found that the successful and unsuccessful participants differed in percentage of the fixation time spent on crucial area of the matchstick arithmetic problem diagram during the successive intervals of the problem solving period. The present study not only took the crucial area that Knoblich et al. barely considered but also the fixed area and other area to verify the idea that constructing the invalid presentation of insight problem causes insight. Besides, although the theory thinks the invalid presentation forms right after the individual interacts with problem, it dosen’t consider the level of fixing with the invalid presentation. Therefore, the purpose of the present study is to confirm that the level of being stuck with the invalid presentation consequently affects representation change. This study conducted two experiments. In experiment 1, eye movements of 38 participants were recorded when solving the matchstick arithmetic problem, and then compared percentage of the fixation time of the successful and unsuccessful ones in different areas on the problem diagram and in different intervals during problem solving;To confirm that the level of fixing in the invalid presentation consequently affects representation change, in experiment 2, 94 participants were assigned randomly to three groups, and guilded their attension to the fixed area and crucial area repectively by flashing these areas;meanwhile the eye movements and scores are recorded. The results showed that, firstly, it occured to the successful participants to revise the invalid presentation, but it didnt happen to the unsuccessful ones. Besides, the invalid presentation are found in the unsuccessful ones, but not for the successful ones. Secondly, the results showed that duing the impasse period, the level of fixing in the invalid presentation of the unsuccessful ones were higher than the level of the successful ones and that the performances of the flashed fixed area gruop are worse than thoes of the flashed crucial area gruop. The results suggest that revising the invalid presentation features largely in solving insight problems and that the data supports the level of fixing in the invalid presentation consequently affects representation change, which extend Representational Change Theory.

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Keywords

表徵轉換理論, 眼動儀, 創造力, 頓悟性問題, Creativity, Eye Tracker, Insight Problem, Representational Change Theory

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