臺灣地區家戶剩食產出影響因子之探討

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2021

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食物浪費與損失是重要的環境議題,人類的食物浪費會造成大量的能源與資源的浪費,包括水、土地、能源、勞動力與資本等,並產生額外的溫室氣體排放,對於人類社會的永續發展造成極大的威脅。本研究主要關注農業食物供應鏈下游的消費者端所產生的剩食,主要研究方法係以家戶為單位的問卷調查法,並利用SPSS 23版進行資料之統計分析,探討國內家戶產生剩食行為之主要原因、剩食產生的主要類別、接觸剩食相關議題的主要管道、以及探討不同特性的家戶剩食產出的差異。此外本研究更進一步以計畫行為理論(Theory of Planned Behavior, TPB),發展建構減少剩食產出行為意圖與行為的影響因子架構,利用結構方程模型(Structural Equation Modeling, SEM)分析不同潛在變項的影響路徑關係。本研究調查發現在家戶中產生剩食行為之主要原因為:「食品過期而未食用完畢」(28.7%);而家戶中剩食產生的主要種類為蔬菜、水果以及麵包糕點三類;家事主持者接觸剩食相關議題的主要管道為新聞媒體(43.5%)。不同性別、年齡、教育程度的家事主持者以及家戶飲食花費在影響剩食產出的因子皆呈現顯著的差異性。而研究亦發現高學歷以及年齡層較低的家事主持者,其「減少剩食產出的行為」表現較不佳。本研究結構方程模型驗證顯示:受試者減少剩食產出的行為意圖受到其自身的「行為知覺控制」與「態度」的直接影響。而購物習慣與食物管理技巧受到受試者行為知覺控制、態度以及主觀規範顯著的直接影響。此外,受試者減少剩食的「認知」顯著正向影響其「態度」,且若能有效提升受試者減少剩食的「態度」,亦會對於「減少剩食產出的行為意圖」有正向影響。本研究結果將有助於釐清與鑑別影響我國家戶剩食產出之關鍵影響因子。
The food losses and food waste in the human society has resulted in a large amount of energy and resources consumption, including water, land, energy, labor and capital, and also generated additional greenhouse gas emissions. Hence, reducing food losses and food waste has become important issues in the sustainable development of human society. The aim of this research is to explore the factors influencing household food waste behaviour in Taiwan, and focuses on the food losses generated by the household sector in the downstream of the food supply chain. The questionnaire survey was used to collect the related opinions and responses, and the SPSS 23 software was used for statistical data analysis in this research.According to the findings of this research, the main reason for food waste in households is that"the food is not be eaten before the expiration date," 28.7%); and the main types of leftover food in households are vegetables, fruits and breads and pastries; and mass media is the main access for receiving food waste information. In addition, the variables like different genders, ages, education levels, and household food expenditures affect most of questionnaire items significantly. The factors affecting the behavior intention and behavior of reducing food waste were investigated basedon the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), and the Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was used to analyze the cause-effect relationships between potential variables. The final results show that both"personal attitude" and "perception of behavior control" of the respondents have significant positive cause-effect relationships between their "behavioral intention of reducing food waste." The "personal attitude," "behavior control perception," and "subjective norms" of the respondents have significant positive cause-effect relationships between their "purchasing habits and food management skills." The "personal attitude" of the respondents is affected by their "personal cognition" toward foodwaste. The findings of this research may contribute to identify the dominant factors affecting household food waste behaviour in Taiwan.

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剩食, 食物浪費, 計畫行為理論, 行為意圖, 結構方程模型, Food losses, Food waste, Theory of Planned Behavior, Behavioral Intention, Structural Equation Modeling

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