高齡者老化態度與成功老化之研究-以社區照顧關懷據點為例

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2011

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本研究旨在探討高齡者老化態度與成功老化之研究,以社區照顧關懷據點的高齡者為研究對象,採取立意取樣的方式選取41位樣本,透過問卷調查法及訪談方式進行研究,並且以描述性統計、t考驗、單因子變異數分析、皮爾遜積差相關以及逐字稿彙整進行資料分析,研究發現如下所述: 1.研究樣本之分佈以女性、75~84歲、專科或大學(含肄業)、已婚、固定與某些(孫)子女居住,且自覺健康狀況是普通的高齡者佔多數。 2.高齡者的人口背景變項,性別、年齡、教育程度、婚姻狀況、居住型態及自覺健康狀況對於「老化態度」、「對自我老化認知層面」及「對自我老化情緒感受層面」沒有顯著差異。 3.高齡者的自覺健康狀況對於「成功老化」、「生活自主層面」、「家人與親友關係層面」及「社會活動層面」具有差異性存在。 4.高齡者在老化態度有不同的看法,分別為(1)高齡者視老化為自然的過程,面對生理老化時,會考量自己身體功能、健康與自主性,並且重視身體保健。(2)高齡者的心理感受,主要受到健康、想法、家庭、經濟…等因素影響。(3)高齡者在社會老化的部分受到個人特質、身體健康狀況、家庭因素及社交圈改變…等因素影響。 5.高齡者在成功老化有不同的看法,分別為(1)高齡者在生活自主層面,受到健康、自主性與保健所影響。(2)高齡者在心理適應層面,受到自我心願、子女健康及國家發展所影響。(3)高齡者在經濟安全層面,受到生活與健康狀況、退休俸、子女奉養及物價指數波動所影響。(4)高齡者在家人與親友關係層面,受到子女與親友間的互動情形所影響。(5)高齡者社會活動層面受到年齡、經濟、教育程度與健康狀況所影響。 6.高齡者在「老化態度」與「成功老化」具有顯著正相關。高齡者在老化態度的「對自我老化情緒感受層面」,與成功老化的「經濟安全層面」、「家人與親友關係層面」有達顯著正相關。 根據上述研究結果,本研究針對各機關團體及未來研究提出相關建議 。
The purpose of this study was to look into the attitudes toward aging and successful aging for older adults. Take the older adults in Community Care Sites as the research subjects. A purposive sampling method used to select 41 members as samples. This study was completed by the means of questionnaire survey and interview. The data obtained from questionnaire survey and interview was analyzed by the statistic methods including descriptive statistics, t-test, one-way ANOVA, Pearson’s product-moment correlation and the collation of verbatim script. The major findings were shown as following: 1.The majority of the distribution of the participants was female, 75 to 84 years old, bachelor's degree (including studying at college), married, living with specific children (or grandsons) and perceiving the health status was not bad. 2.There were no significant differences between the three perspectives (including “attitudes toward aging”,“the cognitions of self-aging”and“the feeling of the mood to self-aging”) and the demographic variables (including gender, age, education, marital status, living patterns and the health status of the self-conscious). 3.There exist obvious differences between the perceiving the health status and the four perspectives (including “successful aging”,“living independently”,“the relationship with family and relatives”and “social activity”). 4.Older adults have different opinions on the attitudes toward aging. These opinions were shown as following:(1)The elderly consider that aging is a natural process. When they face to the physical aging, they will consider their own body functions, health and independence and emphasizing on the physical health.(2)The psychological feeling of the elderly are mainly affected by health, thinking, family, economic and so on.(3)The elderly for the social aging was affected by personal characteristics, the status of body health, family, social intercourse changed and so on. 5.Older adults have different opinions on successful aging. These opinions were shown as following:(1)Older adults were affected by health, independence and health care in the viewpoint of living independently.(2)Older adults were affected by themselves aspiration, children’s health and the development of country in the viewpoint of psychological adaptation.(3)Older adults were affected by the status of life and health, pension, sons or daughters support and the price index unstable in the viewpoint of economic safety.(4)Older people were affected by the interaction between children and relatives in the viewpoint of the family and the relatives. (5) Older adults were affected by age, economic, education, and the health in the viewpoint of social activity. 6.The relationship between “attitudes toward aging” and “successful aging” is significantly positive related for older adults. The relationship between the viewpoint of the feeling of the mood to self-aging in the attitudes toward aging and the viewpoint of economic safety in successful aging was significantly positive related for older adults. The relationship between the viewpoint of the feeling of the mood to self-aging in the attitudes toward aging and the viewpoint of the family and the relatives was significantly positive related for older adults. According to the results of the study above, this study bring up some suggestions to institutions and future research.

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老化態度, 成功老化, attitudes toward aging, successful aging

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