原住民知識精英之學校經驗與族群認同

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2003

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台灣是個多元族群的社會,然而長久以來,原住民所遭受到的種種不平等待遇,致使原住 民族無論在政治、經濟或教育上都處於相當弱勢的不利處境。儘管原住民長期處於教育劣 勢,但其中仍不乏有少數接受過大學教育的知識精英,探討他們過去的學校經驗與族群認 同狀況,相信能給予教育工作者一些不同的啟發。職是之故,本研究乃採「深度訪談法」 ,訪談了7位原住民知識精英,並從訪談所得資料歸結出10項結論如下: 壹、家庭生活的穩定與父母教育態度是支持原住民知識精英得以安心求學之根本因素。 貳、「學業成績」仍為學校教師與同儕判斷原住民成就與能力的最重要標準,惟原住民學 生在校園中常遭受「雙重標籤效應」之對待。 參、「課業壓力」及「缺乏友伴」為原住民知識精英在大學階段較感適應不良之兩個因素 。 肆、原住民知識精英對加分政策抱持肯定態度,但仍期望學校相關單位輔以配套措施。 伍、原住民知識精英長期與漢人混居,對族群差異的敏感度不高。 陸、大學原住民社團的參與,對於原住民知識精英之族群意識的啟蒙與動員具有相當影響 力。 柒、對族群文化的認知不足,以及母語能力的喪失,致使原住民知識精英對族群認同的內 涵僅以血緣為據。 捌、社會大眾對原住民之刻板印象與偏見,原住民知識精英以「努力求取成就」來建立自 信,期能擺脫污名。 玖、原住民知識精英的族群認同型態大致可分為「涵化型」和「融合型」。 拾、文化模式理論不適用於解釋原住民知識精英獲得高教育成就之原因。
Taiwan is a multi-ethnic society, however, since long, aboriginal people in many respects, have suffered from unequal treatments, which have led them get stuck in disadvantageous positions not only in politics, but also in education and economy as well. Despite all these, there have been some, if not many, aboriginal intellectual elites receiving university education. This study explores these aboriginal intellectual elites’ previous school experiences and ethnic identity developments, with a view to render educational practitioners some implications. To achieve the end, this study adopts in- depth interviews with seven informants. Through careful interviews, the following findings are secured. 1. The stability of family economy and educational attitudes of parents are supportive backups for these elites’ success in school. 2. Academic performance, much more than ethnic identity determines how aboriginal students are to be treated, whereas they still suffer double labeling effect on campus. 3. The pressure of schoolwork and the lack of company are two crucial factors for ill-adaptation of these elites in university. 4. Aboriginal elites are positive towards educational policy that helps them enter university, but they still hope educational authorities can have other supporting policies to go along with it. 5. Aboriginal people have lived among Han people for long; hence, they are not so sensitive to ethnical differences. 6. Club affiliations in university play an significant role in awaking these elites’ ethnic awareness and identity. 7. These elites’ ethnic identity comes more from the blood lineage than sound understanding of their ethnic cultures or the abilities of speaking their mother tongue. 8. To fight against prejudice from the public and to get rid of the stigma, aboriginal elites work hard for personal achievements and success. 9. The ethnic identity modes of these elites can roughly be divided into ‘ integration type’ and ‘ acculturation type’. 10. Cultural Model Theory fails to explain why these elites have high academic achievements.

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原住民知識精英, 學校經驗, 族群認同, aboriginal intellectual elites, school experience, ethnic identity

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