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民國八十八年九月二十一日,台灣地區發生規模七點三級的大地震,造成全國共有2,444人死亡,50人失蹤,708人重傷,房屋全倒 51,378戶、半倒53,522戶,估計損失1千303億元(主計處,2000)。 當家庭遭受到如此意外的天災地變,家園毀於一旦,居民只好住進臨時住宅中,並且受限於居住時間的期限。所以他們除了必須調整心理的壓力外,也必須在已受創嚴重的地區謀生維持家計,並為未來的居住安排累積經濟能力。兩年多了,雖然政府實行了救災的相關措施,而民間的援助也有所介入,但仍有許多的家庭仍然居住在組合屋中,擴展期家庭成員以依賴人口為多,這種食之者眾的情形,再加上子女教育及養育的責任,夫妻的角色負擔是可想而知。 經歷世紀大震後,居住於組合屋的生活環境中,熟悉的環境有了改變,家庭凝聚力在地震後有何變化?什麼因素會影響到家庭的凝聚力?希望藉由研究發現,能夠讓社福、教育、立法單位更進一步瞭解組合屋家庭,以給予更適切的協助。 本研究以現象學為核心概念,深度訪談居住於南投縣組合屋的7個擴展期核心家庭,其最長子女不超過18歲,並以夫妻為訪談對象。資料收集時間自民國90年12月15日至民國91年5月11日。 研究結果顯示組合屋家庭在地震前後家庭凝聚力多元的變化。地震後組合屋夫妻間的家庭凝聚力,可分為「變」與「不變」兩大類,其可再細分為五種現象,分別是「變」:1.「變緊密」、2.「由緊密到疏離」、3.「由疏離到緊密」、4.「變疏離」和「不變」。在親子關係家庭凝聚力面向,「付出與回饋」是親子互動的整體描述,分為父母對子女的表現、子女的行為改變兩部分,所呈現的現象為疼愛與責任、無心與無力、沒感覺改變、瞭解與體諒、不安與企求關愛、童心未泯。子女間的關係有因空間過小而有較多爭執的情形。夫妻對整體家庭凝聚力的詮釋是以夫妻關係為主要的參考值,並且若主觀認為家庭生活改變的程度越少,則家庭凝聚力越傾向不變。 研究發現,擴展期組合屋家庭的家庭凝聚力的影響因素為經濟壓力、主動運用資源的能力、對地震事件認知、溝通與分享。其中經濟壓力主因為就業問題。經濟壓力使得組合屋家庭生活費用不足、居住不確定、身心健康受到影響。組合屋若能主動且妥善運用資源,則有助於家庭凝聚力的產生。對地震事件積極面的認知越正向是有助於家庭凝聚力的增加。當家人溝通與分享的情形少,並處於壓力環境下,家庭凝聚力會變得疏離。 最後根據本研究發現給與組合屋家庭、學校、震災重建單位建議,以期增加家庭凝聚力,並針對本研究之研究對象、研究方法、研究內容加以檢討並給與未來研究者建議。
On September 21, 1999, a magnitude of 7.3 earthquake in Taiwan killed at least 2,444 people and caused 50 people missing, 708 people brutally injured 51,378 houses fully collapsed, and 53,522 houses severely damaged. The total cost of loss is estimated about 1,303 million NT (Directorate-General of Budget, Accounting and Statistics Executive Yuan, 2000). When such a tragedy strikes unexpectedly, many families suddenly become homeless and have to move into the temporal houses. Under certain restrictions and limits, the residents not only have to face the loss of their dearest ones, adjust to the new pressures, but also earn livings in the already severely damaged area and find a way to plan for their future. Even till today, two years after the terrible trembler, with government and charities’ aids, there are still many families living in temporal houses. Especially the expanding stage family, where its members are mostly dependents and minors, the parents experience a lot of pressures and difficulties in bringing up and educating their children. After the once-in-a-decade disaster, living in the temporal houses might bring changes in these families. What changes occur in family cohesion? What factors influence and cause the effects? Hoping that through this research and discussion, the welfare organizations, educational authorities, and legislatives can seek more ways to help improve and support the temporal house families. This research is based on phenomenology and interviews on seven expanding stage families inhabited at Nantou County. All of the children are still under eighteen. The data collected is from December 15th, 2001 to May 11th, 2002. The results present changes in family cohesion in a variety ways after the earthquake. After the tragedy, the couples’ family cohesion can be separated into two categories—changed and unchanged. Then the categories can be specifically divided into five different patterns—1.becoming closer, 2.transforming from being close to distant, 3. transforming from being distant to close, 4.becoming further apart, 5. unchanging. In describing the parents and children’s relationships, it is overall regarded as giving and receiving and can be divided in to two parts. Parents to children, children’s reactions and changes are portraying love and responsibilities, no concerns nor abilities, no feelings of changing, realizations and considerations, anxious and wanting love, and childish behavior. Siblings do have more quarrels and arguments regarding sharing limited living spaces. Family’s changes in cohesion are mostly based on the couples’ relationships. If they think that their living styles have not changed, then their family cohesion is less likely changed. Through this research, factors such as economic pressure, abilities to utilize resources, conscious relating to the earthquakes, communications and sharing show great effects on the family cohesion. Especially economic pressure mainly and obviously affects their living expenses, shortage of budgets, physical and mental health, and sense of insecurities. If the families living in the temporal houses can be more resourceful, acquire more positive concepts about earthquakes, and learn to communicate between each family member, the outcome will bring more than just strong family cohesion. Hoping that through this research, my suggestions and advices to temporal houses, schools, government can help bring more families closer together and give some suggestions for future research.



家庭凝聚力, 九二一地震, 組合屋, 擴展期家庭, 經濟壓力, 家人關係, Family cohesion, 921 earthquake, Temporal houses, Expanding stage family, Economic pressure, Family relationship