麥金塔風格式樣之研究 -以酒器設計為例

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2014

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新藝術運動的蘇格蘭格拉斯哥學派代表人物-麥金塔受到英國美學評論家-約翰拉斯金崇尚自然的影響,加上日本文化傳入英國,使他的作品結合了東西文化的元素,獨特性高。因麥金塔的風格涵蓋新藝術運動至現代主義時期的設計特色,其價值可作為未來設計風格發展之參考,本創作研究欲探討預期達到歸納其作品所運用的創作元素與設計特色,作為實踐美學與未來的設計風格之運用。首先研究步驟分為三個部分:透過文獻追溯十九至二十世紀因社會環境、人文經濟等因素所形成的格拉斯哥設計潮流與麥金塔設計風格,並蒐集與麥金塔相關的史料和理論,對應出其設計風格的脈絡。第二階段以質性研究創作,將麥金塔的各類型作品分類集結後,作為本創作研究之案例分析,並結合文獻理論進行設計脈絡應證;針對造形、色彩、材質、比例與裝飾共五個風格形態建構要項,整合出麥金塔在設計上之表現方式,藉由酒器創作詮釋其風格的魅力。本創作研究透過風格形態分析,從式樣案例中進行線稿臨摹,且藉由模仿與體驗加注於創作設計理念。重要研究結論如下:(一) 設計風格的表現能夠呈現出社會的整體脈動,麥金塔經歷過維多利亞風格、新藝術運動、現代主義,其風格兼具柔美與剛強兩大對比特色,造就個人獨特的美學成就。(二) 融合理性與感性的設計特色,作品最精采的部分通常藏於簡單造形之細節中。(三) 麥金塔從繁複的新藝術與簡約的現代主義之設計中取得平衡,式樣分為兩個類型:其一是純裝飾表現,其二為裝飾與造形建立於機能簡化之基礎架構。 (四) 研究過程經歷模仿與體驗是容易獲得成就感的,臨摹式樣與親身體驗欲創作產品的使用情境,使整體研究與創作達到雙向的完美連結。
Charles Rennie Mackintosh was the leading representative of the Glasgow school in Scotland of the Art Nouveau style. Due to the British art critic, John Ruskin, who advocated natural philosophy and aesthetic theories, Japanese culture had become more established in the UK, and this is reflected in his unique artwork that combines the essence of Eastern and Western culture. His style had the features of Art Nouveau to Modernism which can be referred to future design style`s development. The main purpose of this study is to summarize the creative elements and design features of Mackintosh`s works. This research is divided into three stages. First stage is a literature review of Mackintosh`s style and the Glasgow design trend will provide the context of the factors of the social, cultural, and economic environment in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Second stage will be explained using qualitative research methods that using Mackintosh’s works as a case study to develop post-classification, which combines case analysis and literature theory by shape, color, texture, proportion and symbolic decoration. Third stage involves a creative interpretation of wine utensil design. Therefore, using morphological analysis and case studies of hand drawing convert to 3D products. The conclusions of the study are as follows: (1) Mackintosh was heavily influenced by Victorian, Art Nouveau and Modernism, creating a unique personal style with soft and strong aesthetic themes. (2) Combined emotion and sensibility into his design. The most exciting part of his work is hidden in the details of the simple styling. (3) Mackintosh held a fine balance between complicated Art Nouveau and Simple Modernist style; thus divided into two types: one is purely a decorative performance and the other is decorated with functional simplicity with the principles of functionality. (4) Through imitation of study and experience that is easy to get a sense of accomplishment to achieve the perfect two-way link within concept of product designs.

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麥金塔, 風格式樣, 新藝術運動, 產品設計, Mackintosh, style, product design, Art Nouveau

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