動補結構「V+好」與「V+完」完成語義之異同 ——以語料庫為本的研究

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2020

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本研究探查動補結構「V+好」與「V+完」於完成語義表達的異同,為了從客 觀的角度討論台灣地區的使用情況,以中央研究院的平衡語料語料庫作為語料來 源,從語義分析探討動補結構,並且應用 MARVS 理論(Huang et al., 2000)進一 步探討動補結構的內部事件。 本研究以中央研究院平衡語料語料庫查詢所有動補結構「V+好」和「V+完」 的組合,應用中文詞彙網路查詢所有「好」和「完」的語義,為了囊括所有詞彙 語義,也於教育部重編國語辭典查詢詞義。 在探討動補結構「V+好」和「V+完」時,先討論與之結合的動詞成分,再分 析動補結構的語義以及內部的事件類型。研究結果發現,能夠與補語成分「好」 使用的動詞除了表達一般的動作行為,其動作本身還可能帶有製造某物或達成某 個狀態,動補結構「V+好」在表達完成語義的同時,通常也都帶有新狀態的產生; 動補結構「V+完」中的動詞種類多元,但主要是表達一般的動作行為,所以在動 補結構「V+完」表動作完成時,並無強調新狀態的產生,僅說明動作的結束。最 後,從語法、語義和語用三個方面討論兩者的使用情況。 根據研究結果,動補結構「V+好」與「V+完」的使用差異極大,動補結構 「V+好」更多時候是用來表達動作狀態,且兩者在表達動作完成的語義方面往往 帶有不同的語用功能。
This research discusses the differences between verb compound "V+hǎo" and "V+ wán" in the semantic expression of the verb-complement, we analyzed verb semantic, and applied MARVS theory(Huang et al., 2000) to further explore the internal events. In this study, we used Sinica corpus to query all the combinations of verb- compound "V+hǎo " and "V+ wán", and in order to include all the semantics of words, we used Chinese network and The Chinese Dictionary of the Ministry of Education to search all the semantics of "hǎo" and " wán". When discussing the verb-result compound "V+hǎo" and "V+wán", we discussd the verb components in "V+hǎo" and "V+wán" first, analyzing the semantics of the verb-compound and the eventive information. The results of the study found that, the verbs that can be used with the "hǎo" may involve the creation of something or the achievement of a certain state. The verb-result compound "V+hǎo"can express the semantics at the same time, usually with the generation of a new state; the verbs in the verb-result compound "V+wán" indicates the completion of the action, there is no emphasis the generation of a new state, only shows the end of the action. Finally, we discussd the usage of the two from three aspects: grammar, semantics and pragmatics. According to the research results, the use of the verbal complement structure "V+hǎo" and "V+wán" are very different. The verbal complement structure "V+hǎo"is more often used to express the state of action, and "V+wán" often express the semantics of the completion of the action.

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動補結構, V+好, V+完, 動作完成, 語料庫, verb-result compound, V+hǎo, V+wan, action complete, corpus

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