知識信念影響學習運作模式之驗證暨「調整知識信念的教學策略」對國中生學習歷程影響之研究

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2005

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本研究主要目的有三:一是探討知識信念對學生學習歷程的影響,將知識信念與知情意的學習模式加以結合,提出一個「知識信念影響學習運作模式」。二是設計適用於國中生的「調整知識信念的教學策略」實驗課程,分析實施後對學生在知識信念、學習動機、行動控制策略與學習策略上的影響。三是深入瞭解國中生接受「調整知識信念的教學策略」後,學生知識信念的改變歷程,以做為教師教學之參考。 針對上述研究目的,本研究分為研究一與研究二兩個部分。本研究一提出一個包括知識信念、學習動機、行動控制策略與學習策略四個成分的「知識信念影響學習運作模式」,再針對此模式加以驗證。研究對象為國內北部地區共412位國中學生;研究工具為知識信念量表、學習動機量表、行動控制策略量表、學習策略量表等四種。模式考驗結果發現,除易受樣本數影響的卡方考驗外,本模式在基本適配度、整體適配度、內在結構適配度等方面均與一般國中生的觀察資料適配,因此本研究「知識信念影響學習運作模式」可用來解釋國中生學習歷程的觀察資料。 本研究二依據研究一模式驗證的結果,以知識信念改變的相關理論為基礎,結合認知心理學與經驗學習的觀點,設計「調整知識信念的教學策略」課程並進行教學實驗。本研究採用不等組前後測的準實驗設計,研究對象為台北市一所國中四個班級共105位國一學生,實驗組學生52位(男28,女24),控制組學生53位(男27,女26)。本研究先藉由知識信念量表、學習動機量表、行動控制策略量表與學習策略量表等工具的實施,分析教學實驗效果;再透過蒐集實驗組學生課堂的學習資料,深入瞭解學生知識信念的轉變情形;最後針對低、中、高知識信念的三位學生,探討個別學生知識信念的調整歷程。 研究結果發現: 一、本研究「調整知識信念的教學策略」教學課程有助於調整學生在知識信念中的能力天生、快速習得、知識簡單性與知識確定性四個向度。二、本研究「調整知識信念的教學策略」能幫助學生提升學習動機中的態度成分、行動控制策略中的認知控制與他人控制、學習策略中的認知策略、自我測試與自我監控等方面的表現。三、接受「調整知識信念的教學策略」後,多數學生從覺察、反思、實踐的方式調整自己的知識信念,少數學生尚未產生正向改變。四、接受「調整知識信念的教學策略」後,低知識信念個案在知識信念上有明顯的調整,尤其是能力天生與快速習得兩個向度,中知識信念個案主要改變知識簡單性的信念,高知識信念個案開始改變知識確定性的信念。 整體而言,從研究一的模式驗證與研究二的實驗結果,本研究一提出的「知識信念影響學習運作模式」可以獲得支持,本研究二設計的「調整知識信念的教學策略」實驗課程有助於調整學生的知識信念。最後研究者歸納並討論研究結果,針對教學與未來研究提出幾項建議,作為調整知識信念教學與未來後續研究的參考。
The purposes of this study were: 1) to verify the goodness of fit between empirically observed data and Epistemological Beliefs In Learning Process Model proposed by the researcher; 2) to design a teaching program based on “Teaching Strategies for Adjusting Epistemological Beliefs”, and then examine the effects of the teaching program for junior high school students on learning performance; 3) to analyze the changes of the students with the use of qualitative analysis, and then provide suggestions for the implementation of teaching. In order to accomplish these purposes, the whole study was divided into two parts. In StudyⅠ, the researcher proposed an Epistemological Beliefs In Learning Process Model which included the components of epistemological beliefs, learning motivation, action control strategies, and learning strategies, and then verified the goodness of fit of the Model. The Participants were 412 students from five junior high schools in northern Taiwan. The instruments employed in this study include Epistemological Beliefs Inventory, Learning Motivation Inventory, Action Control Strategies Inventory, and Learning Strategies Inventory. Except the Chi-square test that was easily influenced by the sample size, the results indicated that the Epistemological Beliefs In Learning Process Model fitted the observed data well in preliminary, overall, and internal structure model fit criteria. In StudyⅡ, according to the results of StudyⅠand the literature about epistemological beliefs, the researcher designed a teaching program of “Teaching Strategies for Adjusting Epistemological Beliefs” and examined the effects of the teaching program. The design of nonequivalent pretest-posttest control group, as quasi-experiment design, was being applied to this study. The participants were 105 seventh-grade students belonging to experimental group and control group. The instruments employed in this study include Epistemological Beliefs Inventory, Learning Motivation Inventory, Action Control Strategies Inventory, and Learning Strategies Inventory. The researcher analyzed the collected data by two-way MANOVA, and then investigated students’ learning changes with the use of qualitative analysis. The results of StudyⅡwere presented as follows: 1)The teaching program of “Teaching Strategies for Adjusting Epistemological Beliefs” could help the experimental group adjust their epistemological beliefs about innate ability, quick learning, simple knowledge, and certain knowledge. 2)The teaching program could help the experimental group promote their performance in learning motivation (attitude), action control strategies (cognitive and others control), and learning strategies (cognitive, self-test, and self-monitoring strategy). 3)After the teaching, the most students in experimental group could change their epistemological beliefs by the ways of awareness, reflection, and practice, but the few students weren't be changed. 4)After the teaching program, the low epistemological belief case’s beliefs about innate ability and quick learning, the middle case’s beliefs about simple knowledge, and the high case’s beliefs about certain knowledge were been changed noticeably. To conclude, the results of StudyⅠfit in with the Epistemological Beliefs In Learning Process Model and the results of StudyⅡsupport the effects of “Teaching Strategies for Adjusting Epistemological Beliefs”. The researcher also provided several suggestions for instructional assistance and future studies.

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知識信念, 學習運作模式, 調整知識信念的教學策略, Epistemological Beliefs, Learning Process Model, Teaching Strategies for Adjusting Epistemological Beliefs

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