「十念往生」的意義與相關討論

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Date

2006-10-??

Authors

朱湘鈺
Xiang-Yu Zhu

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Publisher

國立臺灣師範大學研究發展處
Office of Research and Development

Abstract

淨土宗在中國普遍流傳,其中以彌陀淨土最盛,淨土宗並沒有將「當生成就」放在「修成正果」、「當生成佛」這個層次上說,而是將重點置於「往生淨土」與否。因為得生淨土者,不但得以免除一切身心憂苦,且能圓證三不退,因此對淨土行者而言,「往生淨土」與「成佛」幾乎可以劃上等號,於是「如何往生淨土」便成為淨土宗的教理上與實踐上最重要的課題。其中方法的「正行」者,為念佛法門,而「十念往生」可以說是淨土法門最為殊聖之處,但此修行方法常引起行者,乃至他教之質疑:「十念」的意義為何?是否有違因果?等問題,本文就大正藏中的淨土三經及其注疏中的相關文獻,針對此議題作討論,期能在方法論上作更清楚的分疏。
Pure Land Buddhism is prevalent in China, and one of its schools, Amitabha Pure Land Buddhism, is particularly popular. Gaining rebirth in Amitabha’s Pure Land is the practitioners' highest goal. The Amitabha Pure Land school emphasizes rebirth in Amitabha’s paradise rather than becoming (a) Buddha and achieving enlightenment in this very life, because in this Pure Land people can be free from suffering, feel tremendously joyful and tranquil, and attain enlightenment as an eighth-level Bodhisattva. Since, according to the practitioners' point of view, the meaning of rebirth in this land is equivalent to that of becoming Buddha, the method of rebirth is the most essential concept in the theory of the Amitabha Pure Land school. Among the methods of rebirth, nian fo fa men (one way of chanting Buddha' s name) gradually became orthodox practice; chanting Amitabha’s name ten times is seen as the most important and the best mode of attaining rebirth. Nonetheless, people of other Buddhist traditions often question the validity of this method. Their queries are as follows: What is the meaning of chanting Amitabha’s name ten times? Does this practice still presuppose the law of cause and effect? The author of this paper discusses these topics with regard to Pure Land sutras in the Da Zheng Zang and their commentaries, and provides a more detailed interpretation of Amitabha Pure Land methodology.

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