服務補救之認知公平對消費者態度及行為的影響

Abstract

企業行銷必須特別重視留住現有的顧客與吸引新的顧客。顧客流失之主因,大多是因服務失誤所致。面對難免會發生的服務失誤,成功的服務補救可影響顧客的滿意度及對企業的忠誠度。由此可見,服務補救的重要性。故企業應研擬好服務補救方式,為服務失誤做好準備。 本研究針對餐飲業,旨在探討服務補救之認知公平對消費者態度及行為的影響。認知公平包括分配公平、程序公平、互動公平與資訊公平。消費者的態度與行為包括服務補救後滿意度、再購意願、正面口碑與負面口碑。為了探究認知公平對消費者態度及行為的影響,實驗設計採用餐廳服務情境模擬,問卷設計共有16種實驗操弄組別,以滾雪球抽樣方式,將受試者隨機分派到不同情境,進行問卷調查。共發放800份問卷,回收有效問卷為643份。 本研究所得之資料乃以SPSS for Windows 11.5及LISREL 8.5統計軟體進行資料分析與驗證工作。研究結果如下: 一、 服務補救方式對認知公平的影響:補償對分配公平具有顯著影響,補救速度對程序公平具有顯著影響,道歉對互動公平具有顯著影響。 二、 知情選擇對資訊公平具有顯著影響。 三、 認知公平對服務補救後滿意度的影響:分配公平、程序公平、互動公平皆對服務補救後滿意度呈正向相關,然而資訊公平對服務補救後滿意度無顯著相關。 四、 認知公平對再購意願的影響:分配公平、程序公平、互動公平及資訊公平皆未與再購意願呈正向相關。 五、 服務補救滿意度對再購意願、正面口碑及負面口碑的影響:服務補救後滿意度對再購意願呈正向相關,服務補救後滿意度對正面口碑呈正向相關,而服務補救後滿意度對負面口碑呈負向相關。
For service providers, maintaining existing customers and attracting new customers are of great importance in marketing. The root cause to lose customers is service failure which happens occasionally. Successful recovery of service failure will increase customer satisfication and loyalty to service providers. Therefore, serivce recovery is very important that service providers shall make good service recovery strategies to convey service failure. For good service recovery strategies, this thesis studied on the impact of perceived justice on behavior and attitudes of cusomters in service recovery process. The perceived justice covers distributive justice, procedural justice, interactional justice and informational justice. The customers’ behavior and attitudes include service recovery satisfaction, repurchase intention, positive and negative word-of-mouth. To investigate the impact, the service recovery processes are simulated at restaurant service. For fair investigation and statistical analyses, the experimental operations are based on 16 different situations of service recovery. Each situation of service recovery is applied to single type of questionnaires. The questionnaires that are operated by the snowball sampling method were randomly distributed to all testees. The investigation adopts 800 questionnaires in total. 643 out of 800 questionnaires are returned to be effective for statistical analysis and theoretical model verification. All data from the effective questionnaires were analyzed and verified with SPSS for Windows 11.5 and LISREL 8.5 statistics software. The results of analysis and verification are summarized for different aspects. 1. The service recovery methods have impact on perceived justice. Compensation has significant impact on distributive justice, recovery speed has significant impact on procedural justice and apology has significant impact on interactional justice. 2. The informed selection has significant impact on informational justice. 3. The perceived justice impacts on service recovery satisfaction in the following ways. The distributive justice, procedural justice and interactional justice are positively correlated to the service recovery satisfaction. The informational justice might not be correlated to the post-recovery customer satisfaction. 4. The impact of perceived justice on repurchase intention is not significant. The distributive justice, procedural justice, interactional justice and informational justice are not correlated to the repurchase intention 5. The service recovery satisfaction impacts on the repurchase intention in the following manner. The service recovery satisfaction is positively correlated to the repurchase intention and the positive word-of-mouth. In addition, the service recovery satisfaction is negatively correlated to the negative word-of-mouth.

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Keywords

認知公平, 分配公平, 程序公平, 互動公平, 資訊公平, 服務補救後滿意度, 再購意願, 口碑, perceived justice, distributive justice, procedural justice, interactional justice, informational justice, service recovery satisfaction, repurchase intention, word-of-mouth

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