齊克果的絕望概念及其教育蘊義

Abstract

中文摘要 本研究旨在探討齊克果的絕望概念及其教育蘊義。齊克果被稱為存在主義之父,其思想主要源自於對其時代的批評,不滿黑格爾哲學體系對人性的化約、基督教信仰形式化、以及社會大眾精神淪喪的現象,齊克果認為這些都是造成個體存在危機的主因,並延伸強調成為「自覺個體」的重要性。透過存在辯證法,以及對人的存在處境、階段與樣態的探討,齊克果認為造成人類精神之死的問題在於—「絕望」,絕望來自於人自身,由於人自身身為綜合體的特質,使得人一生都在致力調和兩種對立因素的過程中,當人無法適切調和兩者以成為真正自我時,「絕望」就會產生。具備正確的自我意識與絕望意識乃超脫絕望的第一步,但要能真正超越絕望,就需要藉助上帝之力。齊克果主張信仰能助人脫離絕望,因此,他關切人無法信仰的「罪」,經由基督教的觀點,來解決人類無法信仰的問題,進而進入上帝的領域之中,以解決存在的絕望困境。 透過齊克果對人類成為「自覺個體」的重視,以及如何以信仰超脫人類存在困境的探討,在教育上,讓我們重新檢視教育主體—教師與學生的主體性,以及有助師生在自我認識與成長上,開創更廣闊的生命格局與教育願景。
Abstract The main aim of this study is to interpret Kierkegaard’s concept of despair and its implications to the contemporary state of education. After Socrates, Kierkegaard is the outstanding philosopher who took the task of inspiring every “Individual” as his duty, that makes him commonly known as the “father of existentialism”, as his philosophy plays an indispensable role to the existentialism. His criticism towards the Hegelianism, dogmatism of Christianity and bourgeois philistines made people aware of existential crisis. He used existential dialectic to describe human’s condition, stages and states; ultimately, he regarded ‘Despair’ as the real sickness that leads to death. As human are born as a synthesis of the infinite and finite, of the temporal and the eternal, if one cannot balance these two factors, then he/she will fall into despair. Kierkegaard strongly believed that it was impossible for human to overcome despair on their own and therefore they must admit themselves to God. It is only when human accepts the fact that God is a being of absolute existence, one can immediately takes himself as subject, and leaps into faith, thus solving the problematic circumstances of despair and sin. Kierkegaard’s perspectives on existence and despair have brought meaningful implications to education as a whole. It reinforces the fact that we should carefully reexamine the fundamental educational subjects— which are the “teachers and students”, to assist them in finding the subjectivity and transcend existential paradox.

Description

Keywords

存在主義, 絕望, 自覺個體, 存在辯證, , 信仰之躍, existentialism, despair, individual, existential dialectic, sin, the leap of faith

Citation

Collections