一個學校由衰轉盛之組織生命史研究 A Life History Analysis of the school from retrogression to flourish

Date
2015
Authors
蔡秀照
Tsai, Hsiu-Chao
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Abstract
本文主旨在探討一所學校在學生人數大減的情形下,學校如何由衰轉盛,轉危為安。學校的主體是學生,學校的盛衰不能只看學生的升學績效,學生品德上的呈現亦是重要指標,但這些都難以轉化為數字做為一所學校由衰轉盛的判別,故本研究以學校學生數的增減起伏來判斷學校盛衰,當學生數由少變多持續一段時間者表示學生處於由衰轉盛階段。 本研究的研究發現有: 一、瞭解個案學校從86年至93年間由盛轉衰之原因: (一)外部環境的因素:(1)少子化現象;(2)小班小校政策的推行,同學區成立新校的後續效應影響;(3)學區重新劃分,而劃分方式不利於個案學校;(4)鄰近學校積極的招生策略影響;(5)磁吸效應:多數人的想法─「新就是好」;(6) 外部公共關係不佳。 (二)內部環境的因素:(1)學生來源的組成份子較複雜,學生較難管理;(2)學生人數過多,訓輔工作吃力;(3)學生活動空間不足,教學品質維持不易;(4)辦學的積極度不足;(5)學校辦學績效─升學率低落的影響;(6)鄰近社區人士負向觀感的擴散作用。 二、分析個案學校93年至今由衰轉盛所擬定的學校經營實務策略,共分兩大主軸: (一)提高升學績效策略 1.學校行政領導策略:(1)激起危機意識策略;(2)激勵成員士氣策略;(3)高倡導與高關懷行為策略;(4)提升行政效能策略;(5)高學業成就學生招生策略─成立英資班;(6)績效管理策略。 2.教師專業發展策略:(1)英資班課程強化專業設計策略;(2)教師發揮教學視導功能策略;(3)成立教師專業學習社群策略;(4)辦理「以學校為中心」教師進修策略;(5)提升新進教師專業創新,經營學校本位一校一特色課程策略。 3.校園環境規劃策略:(1)閒置空間再利用策略;(2)一般學科領域E化教室策略;(3)建構英語互動教學中心,強化全校英語能力策略。 4.學校公共關係策略:(1)落實家長會體制改革,投注更多的教育關心策略;(2)行銷策略。 (二)強化品德教育策略 1.學校行政領導策略:(1)願景領導策略;(2)校長身體力行形塑校園組織文化─身教勝於言教策略;(3)落實生活教育策略;(4)善用全校學生人數變少的另類管理優勢策略;(5)學生總量管制的實施策略。 2.教師專業發展策略:(1)針對「隱性課程」處置技巧,精進教師班級經營知能策略;(2)成立教師專業輔導知能學習社群策略。 3.校園環境規劃策略:(1)境教─校園公園化策略;(2)建立友善校園與建築設備功能強化策略。 4.學校公共關係策略:(1)解決危機衝突,建立學校公關推行機制策略;(2)行銷策略。 三、歸納實徵研究結果,作為充實該校永續經營及其他學校經營之參考。
A Life History Analysis of the school from retrogression to flourish Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate the fact that a school faced the situation with student number decreasing sharply while transforming from retrogression to flourish. The major part of a school is all students.The flourish and retrogression of a school should put balanced emphasis on students’enrolment rate and on students’ ethic performance as well. However, the elements are difficult to be transformed into numbers as the standard to differentiate why a school transformed from retrogression to flourish. Therefore, the research differentiated the flourish or the retrogression of a school based on the amount of the students.When the number of the students from a small amount to a numerous amount lasted for a long time, this phenomenon presented that the students stayed on the stage from retrogression to flourish. The major findings are as follows: I. Realize the reason why the case school became more flourishing from 1997 to 2004. 1. The factors from external environment: a) the phenomenon of Fewer Children; b) the imploment of the policy with small schools and small classes as well as the following effect on setting up new schools in the same district; c) the school district was arranged again bringing about the disadvantages to the case school; d) the effect on actively strategic recruitment from the other schools in the neighborhood; e) Magnet Effect: most people think “New thing is always the best.”; f) externally bad public relation. 2. The factors from internal environment: a) The composition of the student source is more complicated leading to the difficulty of management; b) The amount of the students is over, bringing about the overload of school discipline and guidance; c) The lack of activity space for students resulting in the difficult mainenance of teaching quality; d) The lack of active attitude toward running a school; e) The enrollment rate of the school: the effect on the low enrolment rate; f) The diffusion effect of negative perspectives from people in the neighbornood. II. Analize the the operational strategies of the school management used by the case school from 2004 to 2015. Two major directions are as follows: ⅰ The Strategy to Improve the Enrollment Rate of the School. 1. The leadership trategy used by the school administration: (1) The strategy to improve the crisis consciousness; (2) The strategy to encourage their members; (3) The strategy to concern about their students intensely; (4) The strategy to improve the efficiency of administration; (5) The strategy to attract high-proficiency students to enroll their school – setting up the Talented Class; (6) The strategy to improve the enrollment rate of the school. 2. The Strategy of the Teacher Professional Development: (1) The strategy to strengthen the professional of the curriculum design for the Talented Class; (2) The strategy for the teachers to use the instructional inspection; (3) The strategy to establish the professionally learning groups for the teachers; (4) The strategy to host the school-centered education for the teachers; (5) The strategy to encourage new teachers to be more creative and professional to manage the specific curriculua for this school; (6) The strategy to deepen the professional conversation of school groups and to encourage the teachers to join the evaluation of the professional development for teachers. 3. The strategy for the environmental arrangement of the campus; (1) The strategy to reuse the spare rooms; (2) The strategy to use E-classrooms for the general subjects; (3) The strategy to set up the English center to improve all students’ English proficiency. 4. The strategy for the school of the public relationship: (1) To reform the parents’ organization and to put more emphasis on more latest educational policy; (2) The strategy of marketing. ⅱ The Strategy to Emphasize the Moral Education 1. The strategy of the administrational leadership from the school: (1) The strategy providing a bright perspective; (2) The strategy to form the organized culture of the school by the principal-Example is always more efficacious than precept; (3) The strategy to implement the life education; (4) The strategy to manage the specific advantage of the decreasing number of the students; (5) The implemental stategy to control the amount of the students. 2. The strategy to improve teachers’ professional development: (1) The dealing techniques toward the “hidden curriculum” and to improve the teachers’ acknowledge of the class management; (2) The strategy to set up the professionally counselling ability for the teachers. 3. The strategy for the environmental arrangement of the campus: (1) Environmental eduction-the strategy to plant a lot of trees in the campus; (2) The strategy to establish friendly atmosphere and to strengthen the facilities and buildings in the school. 4. The strategy of school public relationship: (1) To solve the conflict and crisis, The administration of this school established the organization of school; (2) The strategy of marketing. III. Therefore, the research inducted the result of positive research as the references for the administration of the school and for the administration of the other schools.
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少子化, 教育選擇權, 組織生命史, 由衰轉盛, Fewer Children, school choice, life story of an organization, from flourish to retrogression
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