自行車運動觀光參與者之社會資本、深度休閒及心流體驗之研究

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2009

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本研究旨在瞭解自行車運動觀光參與者:在人口特性、參與行為、深度休閒、社會資本及心流體驗上之特徵,與在深度休閒之涉入概況;並比較不同人口特性及參與行為在深度休閒、社會資本及心流體驗上之差異;以及探究參與者之社會資本、深度休閒及心流體驗之相互關係及預測能力。其中深度休閒係翻譯、引用Gould, Moore, McGuire,& Stebbins (2008) 編製的SLIM-54深度休閒量表。研究架構係從文獻中探討得來,透過問卷調查法及深度訪談法,以便利抽樣於現地及網路針對406名研究對象施測,回收率81.2%;並於台北、新竹及花蓮便利抽樣三個自行車焦點團體共15名研究對象進行訪談,經統計分析(描述統計、因素分析、變異數分析、多元迴歸)與訪談稿譯碼比對後呈現結果。結果發現: 一、人口特性:以男性、北部居民、20-39歲、大專以上學歷、工商服務及電子科技業及軍公教、單身及無子女者為大多數;收入呈常態分配。 二、參與行為:以兩年以下參與時間、一個以下同好團體、每週騎車一至二次、每次騎車一至三小時、一次以下大型賽會經驗居多數;絕大多數曾單次破百。 三、於社會資本、深度休閒及心流體驗各萃取出四、九、六個構面;在社會資本最認同「活動規範」,最缺乏「主動及參與」;在深度休閒最認同「自我享受及富足」和「堅持努力」,最缺乏「財務回饋」;在心流體驗最認同「自發性體驗與回饋」,最缺乏「知行合一」。 四、自行車觀光參與者具有深度休閒之涉入。 五、人口特性之:(一)性別、婚姻及子女對社會資本構面;(二)年齡、婚姻及子女對深度休閒構面;(三)性別、年齡、教育、婚姻及居住地對心流體驗構面;有顯著差異。 六、參與行為之:(一)參加團數、週騎頻率、每次騎車時間、單次破百經驗及大型賽會次數,對社會資本構面;(二)所有項目對深度休閒構面;(三)參與時間、參加團體數量、每次騎車時間、單日破百及大型賽會,對心流體驗構面;有顯著差異。 七、人口特性及參與行為對三變項: (一)社會資本: 1.每週騎車二至四次擁有最高之社會資本。 2.參與行為對社會資本之影響較人口特性為大。 (二)深度休閒: 1.每週騎車三至四次,每次三小時以上,具五至十次單次破百經驗者,能獲最佳深度休閒效益。 2.自行車觀光對於「未滿20歲」青少年及「40-49歲」成人在深度休閒之「堅持努力」構面,極具影響。 3.參與行為對深度休閒之影響較人口特性為大。 (三)心流體驗: 1.每次騎車三小時或以上者,心流體驗較佳;想在自行車觀光 獲得心流體驗者,至少應單次破百乙次。 2.自行車觀光對於「未滿20歲」青少年及「40-49歲」成人在心流體驗之「全神貫注與潛在掌控」,極具影響。 八、社會資本與深度休閒有較高之中度相關 (r=.681),深度休閒與心流體驗有高度相關 (r=.701);另發現社會資本與心流體驗具有中度相關 (r=.514),為本研究特有之貢獻。 九、深度休閒會強烈影響心流體驗及社會資本;心流體驗會強烈影響深度休閒,社會資本對深度休閒有些微影響;社會資本與心流體驗有相關存在,但無法互相預測。 本研究結論為:自行車觀光參與者能藉由社會資本與深度休閒之互相影響使社會和諧,並藉由深度休閒增進心流體驗進使身心健康,政府及相關單位應重視自行車觀光參與者社會資本、深度休閒及心流體驗之發展。本研究有三項重要貢獻:瞭解與確認本研究架構各變項之差異與關係、首先發現社會資本及心流體驗之關係,以及藉深度訪談瞭解量化分析下之質性結果。最後本研究提出針對學術及實務界之建議。
The purposes of this study were to reveal the cycling sport tourists’: 1. characters on demographic characteristics, participating behaviors, social capital, serious leisure, flow, and the serious leisure involvement; 2. differences between demographic characteristics, participating behaviors and the three variables respectively; 3. the relations and predictions between three variables above. The serious leisure inventory and measure (SLIM-54; Gould, Moore, McGuire,& Stebbins, 2008) was translated into Chinese version and quoted. The research framework was developed by reviewing literatures, through convenient sampling of the questionnaire survey and focus group interview. A total of 406 on-site and on-line valid samples were used; In addition of the 15 interview samples from 3 cycling groups (at Hsinchu, Taipei, and Hualien) served as the subjects for quantity and quality respectively. Then statistical analysis (Descriptive statistics, Factor analysis, ANOVA, Scheffe, and Regression) and interview record coding were utilized. The results were as follow: 1. Demographic characteristics: The ratios of male, northern Taiwan citizen, 20 to 39-year-old person, degree of college and upward, the unmarried, and the childless werehigher. 2. Participating behaviors: Involving 2 years and below, 1 group and below, riding 1-3 hours per time, and 1 large event experience and below were the majority; the great majority had the experience of riding over 100 kilometers within one day. 3. There were four, nine, and six dimensions which were extracted from social capital, serious leisure, and flow respectively. The subjects most agree with “activity norm” but disagree with “initiative& participation” on social capital; most agree with “self-great-enjoy & enrichment” and “perseverance effort” but disagree with “financial return” on serious leisure; most agree with “autotelic experience” but disagree with “merging of action & awareness” on flow. 4. The cycling sport tourists involved serious leisure. 5. Significant differences with demographic variables were found in cycling sport tourists’ social capital, serious leisure, and flow. 6. Significant differences with their participating behaviors were found in cycling sport tourists’ social capital, serious leisure, and flow. 7. Demographic characteristics and participating behaviors with social capital, serious leisure, and flow: (1) Social capital: a. Highest social capital was possessed by 3-4 times of cycling a week. b. Participating behaviors had more powerful influence than demographic characteristics. (2) Serious leisure: a. Highest serious leisure effect was possessed by 2-4 times of cycling a week, 3 hours and upward of cycling a time, and 5-10 times of experiences of riding over 100 kilometers within one day. b. Cycling tourism had more powerful influence on the dimension “perseverance effort” of serious leisure for those who were “under 20” and ”40-49” years old. c. Participating behaviors had more powerful influence than demographic characteristics. (3) Flow: a. Highest flow experience was possessed by 3 hours and upward of cycling per time b. The experience of riding over 100 kilometers within one day was needed to possess flow experience. c. Cycling tourism had much powerful influence on the dimension “concentration& potential control” of flow for those who were “under 20” and ”40-49” years old. 8. A higher moderate correlation (r=.681) between social capital and serious leisure, and a high correlation (r=.701) between serious leisure and flow were found; besides, a moderate correlation (r=.681) between social capital and flow was found as original contribution. 9. Serious leisure had strong influence on both social capital and flow; Flow had strong influence on serious leisure, social capital had light influence on serious leisure; there were only correlation between social capital and flow, but no prediction existed. It is concluded that: Cycling sport tourism can achieve a harmonious society by interactive influence between social capital and serious leisure, and condition physical and mental health with increased flow by serious leisure. The development on social capital, serious leisure, and flow of cycling sport tourists should be valued by the government and related organizations. This study had three key findings: The variances and correlations among variables were probed and confirmed; First discovered correlations between social capital and flow originally; and explored the details of quantity analysis through group interviews. Finally, theoretical and practical suggestions were proposed in the study.

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自行車運動觀光, 社會資本, 深度休閒, 心流體驗, Cycling sport tourism, social capital, serious leisure, flow

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