諮商員同理表達的訊息處理內在歷程之初探

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2005

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本研究以質性研究方法探討諮商員同理表達內在思考歷程之概念與概念類別,並期能根據研究結果對同理心訓練課程提出具體有效的建議。主要探討的問題如下:諮商員同理表達內在思考歷程為何?其所包含的概念為何?概念與概念類別之間的關係為何?研究中以兩對諮商者與當事者的模擬諮商中所蒐集的諮商者同理的內容為素材。以人際歷程回溯法,採半結構式的方式進行深度訪談。以紮根理論的分析步驟對訪談逐字稿資料進行整理分析,在將結果以認知訊息處理模式的理論及架構相對照,形成一個假設性的「諮商員同理表達的訊息處理內在歷程」之初探模式。 研究結果發現: 一、階層模式的最底部包含36個同理的概念類別,而頂端為「同理表達內在思考歷程」的主要核心類別。 二、在主要核心類別之下包含了兩個核心類別,分別為「同理知識的運作」與「同理運作的條件」。「同理知識的運作」之下因意識控制的程度不同包含了「深思熟慮的歷程」與「不假思索的歷程」等次核心類別。而「同理運作的條件」則包括了「內在特質」、「外在狀態」兩個類別。 三、「深思熟慮的歷程」包含了「設身處地的推敲」與「效能預期的探察」兩個主要類別。前者包含了「蒐集訊息」、「重塑舊經驗」、「拓展新視界」、「辨識情緒」和「形成結果」五個歷程成分。後者包含了「規劃的檢查」、「執行的監督」等兩個類別。 四、「不假思索的歷程」則有「自動化反應」的類別。 研究結果有助於建構同理心內在思考歷程的理論模式,並可應用於諮商員同理心訓練實務。
The main purpose of this study is to explore the concepts and categories of concept of internal thinking process model in empathy of counselor. The main questions of this study are as follows:1.What is the internal thinking process empathy of counselor? 2. What are concepts and categories of concept in the internal thinking process? 3. What relationship between these concepts and categories of concept in the internal thinking process? The semi-structured interview of Interpersonal Process Recall was applied to interview two counselors with their empathy responses in the simulated counsels. The grounded theory methodology was used as a foundation to analyze the data of interviews. A hypothetical preliminary model was constructed as “The internal thinking process model in empathy of counselor”, and was contrasted with Information Process Model. The results of this study are as follows: 1.At the under of the hierarchic model are 36 categories of concept in empathy, and the main core category in the top hierarchic is “the internal thinking progress in empathy”. 2.There are 2 core categories under the main core category: “the practice of knowledge of empathy” and “the condition in empathy practice”. The practice of knowledge of empathy contained 2 sub-core categories: “the consider process” and “the reflex process”. The condition in empathy practice contained 2 sub-core categories: “individuality quality” and “external situation”. 3. The consider process contained 2 main categories: “consider for empathy” and “monitor for empathy”. 4.The reflex process contained 1 main category: “automated reflex”. The findings of this study subserve to build a theory of the internal thinking process models in empathy, and apply it to the training of empathy for counselors.

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同理表達, 內在思考歷程, 訊息處理理論, empathy, internal thinking progress, Information Process Model

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