漢語詞彙語法的學習者特徵:歐洲語言共同參考架構下的分級

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2013

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本論文的主要目的是為了找出現代漢語中對應於CEFR架構的詞彙語法特徵。為了確實掌握不同能力(等級)學習者的語言表現,我們建置了一個以TOCFL電腦寫作考試為主的語料庫,語料分佈在A2、B1、B2、C四個等級,約114萬詞(174萬字)。研究分析方法以語料庫語言學方法為主,包括L1與L2語料庫之間的對比,不同母語背景L2語料庫之間的對比,還有一些常用的統計方法。對於是否為關鍵性特徵的判定則以Hawkins& Buttery(2009)對關鍵特徵的判定標準為主,以統計上的差異是否具有顯著性為依據。 在漢語詞彙特徵部分,我們從詞彙量、高頻訊息、詞語偏誤、主題關鍵性等四方面尋求及探討可能的關鍵特徵。得到的成果包括對應於CEFR A2能力華語所需詞彙量為1000個詞、B1為2300-3000個詞、B2為4500-5000個詞、C級為8000-10000個詞;初級學習者有「過度使用高頻代名詞和高頻一般動詞」的特徵;隨著學習者能力的增高,對於能願動詞和介詞這兩類的詞彙掌握越來越好,然而名詞、動詞、連詞、副詞的偏誤率則沒有顯著下降趨勢;找出了不同母語背景者用詞的關鍵特徵,例如,英語學習者相對少用句尾語氣助詞、多用量詞「個」;日韓學習者在假設句使用上優先選用「的話」形式、因果句優先選用「所以」等等。 在漢語語法特徵部分,我們從名詞詞組、常用句式和語序這三方面尋求及探討可能的語法關鍵特徵,發現屬於一般常規(canonical)的語序,學習者在A2已經習得,例如,SVO語序。非常規的,例如,可以出現在兩種位置的方位詞語、「為了」短語以及較複雜結構如「到+時間詞」、週期性頻率等等則依據難度,習得階段不一;一般華語教學所提出的特殊句式,包括把字句、被字句、連字句等等都可以做為關鍵特徵,從偏誤數據表現,均呈現能力越高、偏誤率越低的趨勢;在短語方面,名詞詞組的擴展以及關係子句名詞的使用這兩個語法表現,可以做為A2以上學習者的區辨特徵。
The study aims to explore the salient linguistic features of Chinese lexical items and syntactic structures across the CEFR levels. The research based on corpus linguistics and contrastive interlanguage analysis method, including comparing learner corpus (i.e. L2 corpus) and native-speaker corpus (i.e. L1 corpus), as well as different native language background L2 sub-corpora. The L2 corpus which consists of more than 1.14 million Chinese words from novice proficiency to advanced learners’ texts is mainly from the computer-based writing Test of Chinese as a Foreign Language (TOCFL). L1 corpus is from the Academia Sinica balanced corpus. In lexical part, we try to seek possible criterial features (Hawkins& Buttery, 2009) from the aspects of vocabulary size, high frequency information, error rate of word use and keyword-keyness analysis. Some salient features are discovered. For examples, English L2 shows the unusual high frequency on pronouns and unusual low frequency on sentential final particles in Chinese writing. And Japanese as well as Korean L2s tend to overuse the post form ‘de hua’ when expressing the If sentence, and overuse ‘suoyi’ when expressing the cause-result relation. The dissertation also provides possible explanations for the findings from the aspects of L2s’ native language typology, linguistic structure, syntactic category and culture. In structure part, we observe and discuss the syntactic features from the aspects of nominal phrase structure, frequent patterns and word order expression by different proficiency learners. We find the A2 level learners have acquired the canonical Chinese word order, for example, SVO. The specific structures like Ba sentence, Bei sentence, and Lian sentence are proved as the criterial features to discriminate the different proficiency levels. And the features of frequency of using relative clause and the expansion ability of nominal phrase are also discriminative for Chinese learners.

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學習者語料庫, 中介語對比, 關鍵特徵, 偏誤率, 歐洲共同架構, learner corpus, contrastive interlanguage analysis, criterial feature, error rate, CEFR

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