西班牙語母語者之華語中介語音分析

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2011

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本論文旨在對西班牙母語者之華語中介語音作一描述分析。透過中介語音聲母韻母及聲調之測試語料分析,配合問卷調查和聽辨測驗,以了解學習者對於華語語音的難點認知、聽辨感知能力以及中介語音的特色。並輔以訪談的方式,了解學習者語音的學習困難,推論影響中介語音的原因為何,並試圖解釋中介語音之發展規律。 首先第一章為本文之研究目的與範圍;第二章藉學者文獻探討中介語理論與研究方法,進行華語和西班牙語語音系統之對比;第三章說明本研究之研究方法;第四章為測試語料之結果,了解一般外國學習者的中介語音偏誤類型;第五章進行綜合討論和教學應用。以對本研究做較詳盡之解釋與分析,期能對華語語音教學與教材教法有所貢獻。 透過本研究發現,西班牙母語者之中介語音雖然主要受到母語遷移影響,但是還有許多其他的影響因素如學習動機、環境、心理、教材訓練、以及交際策略等因素對個別受試者之中介語音表現影響亦深,可見語音之二語習得固然和學習者之母語息息相關,卻是可以藉由學習者本身的內在與外在條件使中介語音的發展更為順暢與快速。學習者無法決定自己的母語,卻可以試圖改變自己的學習方法和態度,使自己的語音更好,而這是華語語音教學所應該思考的問題,除了課堂授予語音知識外,對於教材的編排,環境的營造,教師的課程設計,以及如何提高學習者語音的學習動機和信心,都是語音教學應該繼續努力的方向。 研究結果除了歸納出華語中介語音的類型與特色外,並進一步驗證了Selinker等學者提出影響中介語的因素,並且支持中介語理論的假設:學習者的中介語為有別於母語和目標語的系統,雖然每位學習者的中介語系統不盡相同,但從橫斷面的研究結果看來,學習者的確不斷地向目標語的方向邁進。
Studies on interlanguage phonology has been paid less attention than other learning aspects, such morphology, syntax, and Chinese character. From the practical perspective, foreign accent is one of the more important indices to measure the success of a learner’s Chinese language performance, however, not many language programs make serious efforts to reduce the amount of foreign accent carried by L2 learners of Mandarin Chinese. Many argue that pronunciation is not as important as vocabulary and grammar, as long as the speaking output is understandable. On the other hand, some remarkable phonemes in Mandarin phonetic system distinguishes Mandarin from other foreign languages and thereby cause learners’ difficulties in Madarin pronunciation. Moreover, with the regained interest in the field of second language acquisition, study on Spanish speakers learning Mandarin remains rare. This study intends to obtain a broad view of foreign accents produced by Spanish speakers. By analyzing the output within three perspectives: initials, finals, and tones, the author wishes to offer Mandarin phonetic pedagogy exclusively for Spanish spears. First, a general comparison of the phonological system of standard Mandarin and Spanish is conducted to explore the structural differences between the two languages. Then, an experiment and interview is conducted to explore learner’s errors before any propositions are put forward. A complete description and analysis is beyond the scope of a single thesis study, only a few major phonological structures are examined, including initial, final, and the four tones in single, double, and triple syllables. The testing material is designed based on former studies and experience. It contains every initial, final and most of the combination of the four tones. A number of studies have been conducted to explore foreign accent and errors, but most of them targeted those other than Spanish learners. This study tries to answer several important questions, such as what are the common errors of Spanish speakers of Mandarin, what are the causal factors lead to the difficulty of learning Mandarin pronunciation, and how does the interlanguage phonology system develop during the acquisition. In chapter 1, an introduction and purposes of the study is introduced. Chapter 2 is literature review for interlanguage system, research methods in the field of second language acquisition, former studies on foreign learners’ phonetic errors, and phonetic pedagogy proposed by researchers. Chapter3 introduces the research methods and procedure of the study. Chapter 4 and 5 cover the experiment result and analysis in detail for the three important aspects of Mandarin phonetic system. Chapter 4 discusses the statistical results and analysis of questionnaires, listening tests, and errors examined from speaking output. Chapter 5 focuses on the integrated analysis and explores the factors that cause learners’ errors, and lastly within this chapter the development of learners’ phonetic acquisition is represented based on the experiment data. Chapter 6 summarizes the conclusions of the study and addresses some suggestions for possible future studies.

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中介語音, 對比分析, 偏誤分析, 華語語音教學, 西班牙語母語者, Interlanguage phonology, Contrastive Analysis, Error Analysis, Mandarin Phonetic Pedagogy, Spanish Speaker

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