顛覆父權視角:阿莫多瓦電影中的女性形象逾越

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2022

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西班牙導演佩德羅.阿莫多瓦(Pedro Almodóvar, 1949-)以鮮豔影像色調,充滿顛覆、爭議性風格為名,其創作議題大多圍繞於情慾、性別認同等,並多以通俗幽默手法突顯議題。他的電影裡,女性角色常占據主要位置,形象不僅鮮明,且往往具有能動性(agency),在他以女性為焦點的作品中,不但常彰顯女性自身力量,並突顯女性之間的情誼,因此阿莫多瓦也被稱為「女性的導演」。1970年代蘿拉.莫薇(Laura Mulvey)運用精神分析與電影理論,揭露傳統電影敘事操作異性戀父權體制下的男性凝視(male gaze),不僅固定兩性差異的既定詮釋,並使女性角色成為滿足視覺快感的客體,引發攸關女性電影的討論,現今隨著性別意識高漲、女性聲勢壯大,探討女性形象刻畫與呈現的電影研究也逐漸受到關注。 本研究旨以阿莫多瓦的兩部電影作品《瀕臨崩潰邊緣的女人》(Mujeres al borde de un ataque de nervios,1988)、《玩美女人》(Volver,2006)的影像敘事作為分析主軸,主要以女性主義電影理論(feminist film theory)切入,探討阿莫多瓦如何透過鏡頭、敘事,詮釋女性形象,並逾越男性凝視下的性別論述?如何藉由顛覆父權視角,建構女性主體及論述?女性觀者又能如何獲得觀看的愉悅?希冀藉由分析,得以思考父權體制背後形塑女性形象的脈絡,並從中尋找反抗傳 統強化主流意識形態教條的軌跡,並探索強化女性的聯繫與認同的可能。
Spanish director Pedro Almodóvar (1949-) is best known for his melodramatic and colorful visual style, he also built his reputation with the transgressive and controversial works, which often revolve around eroticism and gender identity. Women are always the main focus of his stories; he not only portrays strong female characters, but also the bond between them. Therefore, Almodovar is also known as the" Woman's director." In the 1970s, Laura Mulvey used the Freudian and Lacanian psychoanalytic model with film theories to expose the male gaze from the unconscious of patriarchal society has structured the classical film form, which not only fixed the established interpretation of the differences between the sexes, but also made female characters an object that constructed to satisfy the pleasure of the male viewer. Based on feminism and feminist film theory, this research uses Almodovar’s two films Women on the Verge of a Nervous Breakdown (Mujeres al borde de un ataque de nervios, 1988) and Volver (2006) to explore how Almodovar presents the image of women?By analyzing through the lens and narrative context of the films, this research aims to investigate how Almodovar transgresses the gender discourse under the male gaze of patriarchal culture? How to construct a female subject and discourse by subverting the patriarchal perspective? And most importantly, how female spectators can get the pleasure of watching these films.

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女性主義, 女性形象, 女性主義電影理論, 男性凝視, 阿莫多瓦, Feminism, Female Image, Feminist Film Theory, Male Gaze, Almodovar

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