應用健康信念模式探討老人流感疫苗接種意圖及其相關因素之研究─以臺北市大同區為例

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2017

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本研究應用健康信念模式探討臺北市大同區老人流感疫苗接種意圖之影響因素,對象為臺北市大同區老人,於2017年以自擬結構式問卷進行調查,取得有效問卷420份,重要結果如下: 一、研究對象之流感自覺嚴重性、流感疫苗接種自覺行動利益皆屬於中上程度;流感自覺罹患性、流感疫苗接種自覺行動障礙屬於中間程度。 二、研究對象健康信念中流感自覺罹患性、流感自覺嚴重性、流感疫苗接種自覺行動效益、流感疫苗接種自我效能、流感疫苗接種行動線索與流感疫苗接種意圖均呈現顯著正相關;流感疫苗接種意圖與流感疫苗接種自覺行動障礙呈現顯著負相關。 三、複迴歸分析結果顯示研究對象曾接種過流感疫苗、流感疫苗接種自覺行動利益越高、流感疫苗接種自覺行動障礙越低、流感疫苗接種自我效能越高者,流感疫苗接種意圖越高。可解釋流感疫苗接種意圖變異量達80%。 依據研究結果,建議提升民眾流感疫苗接種自覺行動利益及強化其自我效能,減除流感疫苗接種行動障礙,以提高流感疫苗接種意圖。 關鍵字:流行性感冒、健康信念模式、疫苗接種、意圖、老人
The study employed the Health Belief Model to examine the factors that influence the intention of senior citizens in Datong District of Taipei City to get influenza vaccination. We conducted a survey with a self-administered questionnaire in 2017 and recovered 420 valid questionnaires. The crucial findings were as follows. 1. Participants expressed moderately high degrees of perceived severity of influenza and perceived benefits of influenza vaccination, as well as moderate degrees of perceived susceptibility of influenza and perceived barriers of influenza vaccination. 2. Participant’s perceived susceptibility of influenza, perceived severity of influenza, perceived benefits of influenza vaccination, self-efficacy of influenza vaccination, and cues to action of influenza vaccination were significantly positively correlated with intention to get influenza vaccination, whereas perceived barriers of influenza vaccination were significantly negatively correlated with intention to get influenza vaccination. 3. The multiple regression analysis results revealed that participants who had gotten influenza vaccination before, had greater perceived benefits of influenza vaccination, had lower perceived barriers of influenza vaccination, and had higher self-efficacy of influenza vaccination were more likely to have greater intention to get influenza vaccination, while these variables accounted for 80% of the variance. Based on the results of this study, we suggest that enhancing the perceived benefits and self-efficacy of influenza vaccination in the public and reducing their perceived barriers of influenza vaccination to increase intention to get influenza vaccination. Keywords: influenza, Health Belief Model, vaccination, intention, senior citizen

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流行性感冒, 健康信念模式, 疫苗接種, 意圖, 老人, influenza, Health Belief Model, vaccination, intention, senior citizen

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