明代家教文獻之童蒙教育觀研究 A Study of the Ideas of Childhood Education in literature of family instructions in Ming Dynasty

dc.contributor 周愚文 zh_TW
dc.contributor.author 林秀環 zh_TW
dc.date.accessioned 2019-08-28T09:29:10Z
dc.date.available 2013-7-12
dc.date.available 2019-08-28T09:29:10Z
dc.date.issued 2013
dc.description.abstract 本研究分析明朝49種家教文獻的產生年代及內容,探討其童蒙教育的觀點,研究主要發現如下: 一、明代有些家教文獻的教導對象包括成年子弟,而不限於童蒙。對於童子的教育重點,則主要在於德育及智育兩方面,其部分內容分別承襲了顏之推《顏 氏家訓》、朱熹或王陽明的童蒙教育觀點。 二、明代家教文獻可考著作者的身分背景,絕大多數為具有官職,或取得功名、學品、學銜的士紳,但亦不乏在野文人儒士的作品。另外,著作者所在地區,大多數分布於東南,尤其集中今浙江、江蘇一帶。 三、明代家教文獻中關於童蒙教育的內容,大致可歸納童子智慧的培養、童子品德的薰陶、女童教育以及對於家長如何教育子弟的建議等四方面,其重點摘 述如下: (一)童子智慧的培養:首先,家教文獻多認為子弟年幼時即應受教育,並提出謀職的「治生」觀點。其次,要求孩子勤奮讀書,力行實踐,主張以儒家經典作為教材。最後,家教文獻注重孩子思考及背誦的功夫,部分家訓則談到寫字的原則與方法。 (二)童子品德的薰陶:明代家教文獻中有許多關於「齊家睦族」、「品德修養」以及「待人接物」的內容。 (三)女童教育的觀點:明代家教文獻中大致以傳統的「三從四德」為基礎,以事夫、事舅姑為中心。 (四)建議家長如何教育子弟:明代家教文獻重視「及早教育」、「胎教」、「嚴教」與「身教」的觀念,且強調為孩子擇取良師的必要。 四、有關教育童子的主張,雖然明代學術思想上是以程朱理學為官方主流,中期以後陸王心學興起,晚明轉向實學,但在教育童子觀念上兼採了朱王的主張,但以朱說為主,至於實學似乎尚未發生影響。 zh_TW
dc.description.abstract The purpose of this thesis is to inquire the ideas of childhood education in Ming Dynasty and forty-nine copies of literature of family instructions were analyzed. Ideas about the education for children were discussed. The main findings are as follows: 1. During the Ming Dynasty the subjects educated by literature of family instructions included not only young children, but also male adults. The focus of the children’s education primarily was their ethics and intellectual development. Part of their contents followed The Family Instructions of Master Yan by Yan Chih-Tui, as well as the ideas on childhood education of Chu Hsi and Wang Yang-Ming. 2. The majority of authors of literature of family instructions in this thesis held official posts or were gentlemen with scholar degree, but some of them were the retired scholars. In addition, most of them lived in Southeast China, particularly in Zhejiang and Jiangsu provinces. 3. Main content about childhood education of literature of family instructions in this thesis were composed of the intellectual cultivation of young boys, their moral education, the education of girls, and ideas about how parents to educate their male children. The major points are summarized as follows: i. As to intellectual cultivation for male children, firstly, most literature of family instructions believed that male children should be educated to be officials in the future from early childhood, but how to make a living was emphasized too. Secondly, they required that the children had to study hard and took practical exercises. It was advocated that Confucian classics were used as teaching materials. Finally, literature of family instructions emphasized that children should spend much time on thinking and reciting. Some of family precepts mentioned about the principles and methods of how to write Chinese character. ii. As to the moral education for male children, the content of a large amount of literature of family instructions were about how to keep the family harmonious and well-ordered, moral cultivation and how to keep good personal relationship with others. iii. As to girls' education, the ideas about girls’ education of most literature of family instructions was based on the doctrine of ‘Three Obedience and Four Virtues’, and concentrated on the ideas about obedience to their husband and parents-in-law. iv. As to advice for parents on children education, literature of family instructions placed a strong emphasis on the concepts of Early-start Education, Prenatal Education, Strict Education and parent as role-model. They also stressed the necessity to choose a good mentor for their children. 4. Master Zhu Xi’s thought became the dominant thought since the Ming dynasty,. Later on, the school of Universal Mind became popular in the mid of Ming dynasty and that of Practical Science emerged in the late time. Most of literatures of family instructions adopted the doctrines of Zhu Xi and Wang Yang Ming but more tending to Zhu’s one. As to the practice science school, it was seemingly less impact on children education. en_US
dc.description.sponsorship 教育學系 zh_TW
dc.identifier GN0697000158
dc.identifier.uri http://etds.lib.ntnu.edu.tw/cgi-bin/gs32/gsweb.cgi?o=dstdcdr&s=id=%22GN0697000158%22.&%22.id.&
dc.identifier.uri http://rportal.lib.ntnu.edu.tw:80/handle/20.500.12235/90182
dc.language 中文
dc.subject 明代家教文獻 zh_TW
dc.subject 童蒙教育 zh_TW
dc.subject 童蒙教育觀 zh_TW
dc.subject 女子教育 zh_TW
dc.subject Ming Dynasty literature of family instructions en_US
dc.subject childhood education en_US
dc.subject ideas about childhood education en_US
dc.subject girl’s education en_US
dc.title 明代家教文獻之童蒙教育觀研究 zh_TW
dc.title A Study of the Ideas of Childhood Education in literature of family instructions in Ming Dynasty en_US
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