諮商督導者經驗平行歷程之歷程性研究

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2022

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本研究旨在了解諮商督導者經驗平行歷程的經驗,借以理解諮商督導者知覺平行歷程之脈絡,以及督導者有無意識與辨悉平行歷程,並從督導者有意識和辨悉平行歷程的經驗文本中,找出督導者決定介入平行歷程的內在意圖與行動,進而發現後續影響的價值。基於上述目的,本研究採用現象學取向之質性研究法,以立意取樣的方式,邀請八位諮商督導者,以半結構的訪談大綱進行個別深度訪談,共計蒐集有16組督導三人關係之平行歷程經驗,並依據現象學資料分析步驟進行分析與統整。研究結果發現:1. 督導者知覺平行歷程之當下事件與脈絡:(1)督導者起初在面對平行歷程現象時,最先感受到的是諮商情境與督導情境中的騷動;(2)騷動之情緒張力來自於諮商關係、督導關係、督導三人關係,或甚至是整個系統的彼此誘發;(3)情緒張力若持續,將使諮商與督導工作陷入膠著、難以發揮功能;(4)若督導者可以探尋工作膠著的源頭,將開啟對騷動的理解與平行歷程的意識;反之,倘若督導者未能對督導三人關係動力有更多的覺察,將維持著原有無效的督導介入,陷入督導困境。2. 督導者對平行歷程的意識與辨悉歷程:(1)因未有覺察,而維持原有無效的督導介入;(2)督導者穩定自我情緒、反思自我的移情與反移情,有利尋求不同改變的思維與行動,開啟對平行歷程的意識;(3)覺察受督者與督導者本身的非典型和不一致行為,能探尋到諮商關係與督導關系的相似性,進而辨悉平行歷程現象。3. 督導者介入平行歷程的考量與介入歷程:(1)先進行自我情緒調節,以安頓自我;(2)聚焦了解和評估受督者的狀態,並促進受督者覺察;(3)聚焦督導關係的介入,以進行督導工作的澄清和討論;(4)針對諮商工作陷入困境的受督者,督導者會聚焦個案狀態和諮商關係的討論;(5)提供諮商策略,輔助受督者進行諮商介入;(6)在督導時除關照動力關係的微觀視框之外,增加系統間的宏觀視角;(7)最後,督導者也會將諮商介入的自主權交予受督者,尊重受督者的判斷和獨立性。4. 諮商督導者介入平行歷程的後續影響意義:(1)督導者介入平行歷程後,督導工作僵局得以解套,且透過督導的示範作用,協助受督者得以鬆動諮商工作;(2)督導者有機會轉向省思個人的成長歷程,更加看到自己的專業責任,更願持續投入督導工作;(3)影響受督者當下的諮商工作和諮商關係,更讓受督者擁有自我督導的能力,使其能運用在未來。上述結果帶來的是一連串的改變,也發揮滾動式的相互性正向影響;(4)在另一方面,督導者未能及時意識和辨悉平行歷程者,雖使諮商與督導工作持續陷入膠著,但在重新探究後,亦能促使督導者省思,並願將平行歷程動力做為未來工作的評估參照。文末,研究者提出建議與研究限制,提供諮商督導實務工作,以及未來研究之參考。關鍵詞:平行歷程、諮商督導者、督導三人關係
The purpose of this study was to understand the counseling supervisors’ experience of parallel processes, in which we learned how supervisors perceived parallel processes, and if they were aware of and distinguish parallel processes or not. Through those feedbacks, in which supervisors were aware of and distinguish parallel processes, I categorized what their intention were, and how they decide to intervene, then discovered the value of the effects.Based on the qualitative research method of phenomenological orientation and purposeful sampling, eight supervisors were invited based on the purpose of this study. Semi-structural in-depth interview was conducted for each participant, and sixteen experiential texts of supervisor-supervisee-client relationships were collected. The method of phenomenological analysis was used for data analysis.The findings of the study were: 1. The supervisors’ acknowledging of the events and context during the parallel process: (1) At first, the supervisors sensed the commotion in the counseling and supervision conditions; (2) The commotion was derived from counseling relationship, supervisory relationship, supervisor-supervisee-client relationships, and even from the whole system; (3) If the emotional tension continued, the counseling or supervision progress would get stuck; (4) If the supervisors could explore how the progress got stuck, they would realize the commotion and the parallel process. On the other hand, if they couldn’t perceive the dynamics among the supervisor-supervisee-client relationship, the invalid supervisory intervention would continue, and the impasse went into vicious circle. 2. The process of the supervisors’ awareness, distinction, and realization the parallel process: (1) Theys may not realize parallel process, and maintained original but invalid interventions; (2) Once the supervisors stabilized his/her emotion and reflected his/her transference and countertransference, they would think and act differently, which initiates realization of parallel process; (3) When they perceive the atypical behaviors and inconsistent reactions on supervisors or supervisees, they would explore the similarity between the counseling relationship and the supervisory relationship which would lead to distinction of parallel process. 3. The consideration and process of the supervisors’ intervention of the parallel process: (1) At first, they underwent adjustment of their own emotion, and settled down themselves; (2) They would understand and assessment the supervisees, which make the supervisees insight; (3) They would intervene of supervisory relationships, and the clarification and discussion would be carried on; (4) For those supervisees whose counseling work went into plight, supervisors would intervene of the clients and discuss of the counseling relationship; (5) They would offer counseling strategies, which supported supervisees to carry on interventions. (6) Besides of a micro view of dynamic relationship, they pay attention on how the system context affect the interaction with a macro view; (7) At last, supervisors would respect the supervisees’ judgement and independence, and let them intervene the counseling autonomously. 4. The following-up effect after the supervisors intervening the parallel process: (1) After the supervisors intervene the parallel process, the supervisory impasse was resolved. Through the demonstration of the supervision, the supervisees would loosen counseling work; (2) The supervisors would reflect his/her own growth, and with reviewing professional responsibilities, they would dedicate themselves to supervision more; (3) The supervisees’ current counseling work and relationships would be improved, and the supervisees gradually cultivated self-supervision ability on the counseling with other clients, producing influence in the future. And a series of changes initiated positive effect cycles; (4) On the other hand, even some supervisors couldn’t realize and distinguish parallel process in time, and though impasse continued, the supervisors got reflection by re-exploring, and they would take parallel process dynamics into account in the future.Suggestions and limitations were made for future supervision practice and research in the end.Keywords: parallel process, counseling supervisors, supervisor-supervisee-clientrelationship

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平行歷程, 諮商督導者, 督導三人關係, parallel process, counseling supervisors, supervisor-supervisee-client relationship

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