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A Study of Solving Strategies of the Problems on the Spatial Ability of 3D Rotation Orientation
This study aims at analyzing the solving strategies on the problems of tri-dimensional rotation orientation of the manipulation capability for the small-scale-space models in the literature of spatial conception, exploring the process of the tri-dimensional object’s locality, pondered in the problem solver’s mind, through its moving and rotating, and predicting the result and process of its shifting. This study, through the discussion of literature, professionals’ seminars, etc., induced and analyzed the scale items for the problem-solving strategies of tri-dimensional rotation orientation and after experiencing the two-time scale items in the first phase, the problem-solving process was written down, so that the second-phase items of Thinking Aloud Problem Solving were confirmed. Based on the theories and relevant researches of the problem-solving reasoning process, the test-taker’s internal pondering and problem-solving techniques on the problems of tri-dimensional rotation orientation of the spatial ability were probed, by relying on both the Thinking Aloud Interviews and Observation, so as to analyze the logic of reasoning from the spatial-ability problem solvers. The main subjects of this study were from the first-grade students in the comprehensive classes, Jui-fang Vocational High School, who were tested for problem-solving process in written forms with the scale items of the tri-dimensional rotational orientation of the spatial ability. After integration from the researchers and co-observers, four problem-solving aspects for the spatial ability of the tri-dimensional rotational orientation, including methods of problem solving, characteristics of objects, bases of rotation, and experience of association, were established, and then various types of problem solving and the keys to reasoning were analyzed. Furthermore, the outline for the Thinking Aloud interviews was developed and used for interviewing, for which Protocol Analysis was undertaken with the literal script obtained from the interviews. Thus, the problem-solving process of the interviewees was analyzed, in accordance with Schoenfeld’s six phases of problem-solving process: item-reading, analyzing, questing, planning, executing, experimenting and transferring. This study also analyzed the difference between success and failure for the Thinking Aloud problem solving on the problems of tri-dimensional rotation orientation spatial ability, undertaken by novice and expert problem solvers, in reference to the following five items: schema data bank, knowledge organization series, problem representation, strategic problem solving, and problem-solving efficiency. This study conclusively developed four different models of problem-solving strategies and thirteen principles as the following, so as to provide an essential reference for enhancing appropriate learning strategies for spatial ability in order to meet various levels’ requirements. ＊ Intuitive Reasoning of Problem Solving: surmising judgment, experience analogy, and suppositive inference ＊ Rationalization of Problem Solving: inductive contrast, surmise identity, step-by-step allegation, positive comparison and contrast deletion. ＊ Conception Clarification of Problem Solving: repetitive experiments and experience accumulation ＊ Representation of Problem Solving: resigning solution, surmising solution and theoretical misconception.
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