Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://rportal.lib.ntnu.edu.tw:80/handle/20.500.12235/97892
Title: 病理、變態與治理:論維多利亞的感染論述
Pathology, Abnormality, and Governance: On Victorian Narratives of Contagions
Authors: 李有成
Yu-cheng Lee
陳重仁
Chung-jen Chen
Keywords: 感染
維多利亞
病理
變態
治理
傅柯
迪更斯
貧民窟論述
福爾摩斯
開膛手傑克
吸血鬼
冒險小說
巴斯德
查德威克
衛生論
感染論
Contagions
Victoria
Pathology
Abnormality
Governance
Foucault
Dickens
Slum narratives
Holmes
Jack the Ripper
Vampire
Adventure stories
Pasteur
Chadwick
Sanitationism
Contagionism
Issue Date: 2010
Abstract: 本論文由傅柯的理論基礎為出發點,企圖探究文學作品、文化現象與社會思潮中醫學權力規訓與「傳染」知識建制的關連。本論文將標示文學作品、文化現象與醫學發展的對位互動,試圖經由比對文學作品、時代思潮與醫學史發展,開拓跨領域研究的閱讀策略,以十九世紀大英帝國空前的殖民版圖為閱讀基準,對比閱讀醫學技術、海外殖民、內在衝突與文學想像的交互關連。 十九世紀後半葉的大英帝國面臨社會空前的轉變,工業革命帶來巨幅的社會變動,造就都會化人口大量集中都市、傳統農業產業與農莊生態轉變的巨大變遷,都會區人口大量聚集使得都會區衛生醫療環境立即面臨嚴峻衝擊,大量鄉村人口流入都市,亦為傳染疾病大規模流行創造有利的條件。十九世紀的英國是人類社會邁入現代化生活的重要指標,同時,大英帝國的勢力亦在此一時期達到空前壯盛的頂峰,大英帝國在海外的殖民地版圖成為人類有史以來最為壯闊的管理版圖,因應管理海外殖民地的殷切需求,大英帝國需要不斷輸出能力上得以管理殖民地的帝國菁英,而這些帝國菁英份子,亦需要從殖民母國獲得管理殖民地所需的經濟、武力與醫療支援。 十九世紀同樣也是現代醫學在技術與觀念上產生大躍進的關鍵年代,隨著醫療科技在外科醫學、藥理學、微生物學、公共衛生、無菌消毒、病理解剖等領域的重大突破,西方醫學始擺脫不受信賴的傳統印象,獲得科學理性的權威。本論文試圖以醫學史的閱讀角度切入十九世紀英國文學小說,藉由對照西方醫療史的發展,閱讀文學作品中反映出的醫學想像與恐懼,進而探討醫學如何從一門科學演變成為文化史中的一門規訓,並從對照醫學與文學的閱讀中,檢視文學中的醫學論述如何型塑人們對醫學的感受認知與對現代性工具理性的追求。同時試圖探討醫學作為一門規訓,何以被帝國納入龐大的論述建制工程,並轉化為帝國對內馴化統御、對外征服管理的工具。 然而,醫學的突破性發展雖然對帝國產生實質的助益,但對於帝國勢力的消退與殖民地反撲的焦慮卻未曾因醫學理性科學地位的穩固而稍獲舒緩。十九世紀末期,大英帝國勢力由極盛而衰,帝國勢力消退的焦慮以及殖民主體的崩解,也透過醫療想像在文學作品的互文脈絡中展現帝國主體面臨反殖民的焦慮不安。本論文試圖尋找在帝國勢力消退而醫學發展獲得突破發展之際,在文學創作中的醫學想像元素如何發揮塑造國族認同、規訓身體政治、擬具恐懼與魅惑交雜的多重力量。 本論文企圖由閱讀十九世紀末期英國文學作品著手,藉由對比本時期迅速發達的現代醫學與文學創作,期待藉此開發更具省思內涵的閱讀角度。據此,本論文以十九世紀醫學史與同時期英語感染論述作為對位閱讀標的,探索文學與文化對醫學的想像,論究醫學在文化與文學創作中的啟示,並企圖開發大英帝國與十九世紀英國社會對醫學與主體的想像,鎖定大英帝國全盛時期,研究近代醫學精進與文學文化創作中大量充斥的醫療想像意涵,探討何以此時期盛行「傳染」的概念型塑了維多利亞時期對內界定自我以及對外界定他者的概念,並試圖分析「傳染」醫療論述對於帝國主體的建構,以及對於帝國內部子民的規訓教化以及對於殖民地的管理征服發揮的力量。並繼而討論帝國如何透過「傳染」論述的想像建構理性健康的主體,並將疾病、傳染、衰弱、腐敗的不健康因素,具體轉化為對於他者的想像。在帝國勢力消退之際,醫學規訓呈現混雜豐富的想像空間,在提供帝國主體工具理性的現代性選項之外,醫學想像元素也具體形塑他者的想像,透過醫學理性歸納分析的精確鑑定區隔,健康、無菌、理性的主體遭受疾病、傳染、瘋狂的他者反撲,醫學與疾病的想像為世紀末的大英帝國找尋一道將反殖民恐懼具象化與宣洩集體焦慮的有效管道。 論文第一章簡述維多利亞感染簡史,簡述主導前期的衛生論(sanitationism)與後期的感染論(contagionism)的主要理論基礎、關鍵人物與醫學技術發展。第二章討論迪更斯小說中的衛生論,探究描述城市瀰漫氣味的感染寫實手法,以及其所代表的文化意涵與霍亂想像。第三章檢視維多利亞貧民窟論述呈現由衛生論至感染論的理論轉向,探討因醫學科技精進引發的思維模式轉變。第四章探討福爾摩斯偵探故事中隱含的失序焦慮,比對感染論述衍生的病毒入侵與免疫想像,以及隨之而來更為撲天蓋地的衛生控制。感染論述被建構成一套鑑定病理並治理變態的權衡機制,第五章以開膛手懸案的感染論述檢視何以健康的概念必然隱含正常化的權力機制。第六章企圖比對梅毒病史與《德古拉》的感染焦慮,閱讀吸血鬼傳染形塑的男性醫學權威、受害女性以及變形身體的感染政治。第七章探究冒險小說中的瘧疾傳染想像,探究帝國擴張、醫學治理與文化想像的情感結構。
This dissertation explores the concept of Victorian contagions: their dominances, their variations, and above all, their importance to Victorians’ ideas of obsession and fear. My methodology is to focus as much as possible on individual works belonging to the realm of literature and medical history, and I piece these works together in new ways to create a rich composite of tangible and perceivable experience from Victorian culture. I read them as works inspired by great interpretative imagination or innovative science, and then make sense of their relationship to social control and individual resistance. Through this collage of literature and medical history, I try to discern the shaping principles, not only of fictions, but of lives as well. In essence, this is a dissertation about health and disease, normality and governance, “us” and “them,” aspiration and fear, as each of these elements occurs in the various and usually confronting narratives of contagions. I explore why particular medical and technological developments occurred at particular historical moments, and how these developments interacted to formulate a culturally unique understanding of disease, medicine, and the self. The impact of medical breakthroughs is discussed in the context of Victorian social, cultural, and political developments in order to show why and how the concept of contagions assisted in shaping new Victorian ideas about pathology and abnormality. By tracing the formation of correlations among cleanliness, lighting, good ventilation, hygiene, and health in contrast to filth, staleness, dampness, and illness, I examine the emergence of governance in the good name of medicine. Narratives of contagions drafted in this period bore traces of medical theory, in which threats to human health were perceived as tangible; this dissertation traces the transformation from “smelling” to “seeing” in such contagion narratives. Throughout the Victorian era, narratives of contagions were largely promoted and manipulated by an observing mentality that both regulated domestic order and facilitated imperial enterprises. Most of all, by tracing the multitude of contagions, this dissertation attempts to describe and make sense of the tangled and many-faceted significance of Victorian contagions. Chapter One of this dissertation recaps a brief history of Victorian contagions in the establishment of sanitationism and contagionism. Chapter Two is devoted to the study of Dickens’ sanitationist narratives of contagions, in which sources of contamination are presented as smellable. Chapter Three surveys the activation of medical normatism fluctuating between sanitationism to contagionist theories. Chapter Four focuses on the shift to contagionist narratives, in which threats to public health are specified and excluded at all costs. To adopt the notion of normatism in reading pathology, abnormality, and governance in Victorian narratives of contagions, Chapter Five continues to examine symptoms of corruption in the legacy of Jack the Ripper. Chapter Six contributes to the discussion of body politics in that quintessential Victorian tale Count Dracula, expressed in victimized women, all-powerful doctors, and the grotesque body of the vampire. Finally, Chapter Seven investigates the structural feeling of contagions in adventure stories.
URI: http://etds.lib.ntnu.edu.tw/cgi-bin/gs32/gsweb.cgi?o=dstdcdr&s=%22http://etds.lib.ntnu.edu.tw/cgi-bin/gs32/gsweb.cgi?o=dstdcdr&s=id=%22GN0894210035%22.&%22.id.&
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Other Identifiers: GN0894210035
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