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Title: 多媒體單字註釋對於字彙學習、聽力以及閱讀理解的效果
The Effects of Different Presentation Modes of Multimedia Annotations on Vocabulary Learning and Listening and Reading Comprehension
Authors: 林至誠
Dr. Chih-cheng Lin
Keywords: 多媒體註釋
multimedia annotation
vocabulary learning
listening comprehension
reading comprehension
learning style preference
cognitive load
Issue Date: 2013
Abstract: 許多研究已經指出多媒體註釋對於增進單字學習的效益。在這些多媒體註釋中,單字解釋通常都輔以圖片或是影片來呈現,而聲音媒介往往未被提供。再者,雖然認知負荷常被用來解釋多媒體註釋的效果,但是卻少有研究提供確切的認知負荷量來佐證。因此,本研究旨在探討呈現文字、圖片、聲音媒介的多媒體單字註釋對於學習者在單字學習,聽力以及閱讀理解表現的效果。而多媒體註釋的效益是否受學習者的學習風格偏好影響也將被探究。本研究另外亦探討不同模式的單字註釋是否將造成不同程度的認知負荷。 受試者為423位國中生,在活動中,他們將閱讀一篇提供了單字註釋的英語文章。他們首先被區分為具有語文視覺,非語文視覺,以及聽覺風格偏好的學習者,接著他們被隨機分配到任一單字註釋的組別,包括純文字,文字加圖片,文字加聲音,文字加圖片及聲音(混合)組。之後,他們接受三份單字測驗以及兩份理解測驗,最後,他們依序完成一份認知負荷問卷以及一份多媒體註釋使用態度調查問卷。 根據二因子變異數分析的結果,單字註釋類型和學習者的學習風格偏好並無顯著交互作用。並且,單字註釋類型並未顯著地影響學習者在學習和記憶單字拼字,單字解釋,以及閱讀理解的表現。然而,單字註釋類型對於學習者在聽字辨意以及句子聽力理解的表現有顯著的影響。其中,混和組在聽字辨意測驗中的表現顯著優於純文字組以及文字加圖片組,而混合組還有文字加聲音組在句子聽力理解的表現顯著優於純文字組。至於測得的認知負荷量,二因子變異數分析的結果顯示單字註釋類型和學習者的學習風格偏好並無顯著交互作用,並且,閱讀不同類型單字註釋的學習者所承受的認知負荷量並未顯著不同。最後,使用態度調查表的結果指出,學習者對於使用多媒體註釋的容易度,其增進單字學習及記憶的效益,多媒體註釋的提供及使用,以及在未來使用的意願上都抱持正面的態度。根據本研究的發現,文末提供有關多媒體註釋的應用和設計之建議,以及對於未來研究的建議。
Many studies have reported the effectiveness of multimedia annotations presented in dual modes in facilitating vocabulary acquisition. Translations were commonly supplied with pictures and videos in the annotations. Sound, however, as alternative input is absent. Moreover, the effects of multimedia annotations tended to be conceptually discussed with the notion of cognitive loads without concrete evidence. Therefore, the present study aims to explore the effects of varied multimedia annotations incorporating textual, pictorial, and audio input on vocabulary learning, listening, and reading comprehension. It also examines if learners’ learning style preference affects the effectiveness of multimedia annotations. In addition, this study investigates if learners experience different cognitive loads. A total of 423 junior high school students were recruited to read an annotated passage. They were classified under visual/verbal, visual/nonverbal, and auditory preference first and then were randomly assigned to an annotation group, namely, text-only, text-plus-picture, text-plus-sound, text-plus-picture-and-sound groups. After the treatment, the learners took three word tests and two comprehension tests. They also completed two questionnaires for the measurement of imposed cognitive loads and investigation of attitudes toward the use of multimedia annotations. The results of two-way ANOVA showed that there was no significant interaction effect between annotation type and learning style preference. Moreover, annotation type did not significantly enhance learning and retention of word spelling as well as word meaning and performance on reading comprehension. Yet, there was a significant effect of annotation type on performances on the definition-supply and sentential listening comprehension tests. The Combined Group significantly outperformed the Text Group and the Picture Group in the definition-supply tests. Moreover, the Combined Group and the Sound Group were superior to the Text Group in the sentential listening comprehension tests. With respect to cognitive loads, results of two-way ANOVA revealed that there was no interaction effect of annotation type and learning style preference. Also, no significant effect of annotation type on the imposed cognitive loads was reported. Finally, the results of the questionnaire revealed that many of the learners held positive attitudes toward the ease of using multimedia annotation, the effectiveness of it in facilitating vocabulary learning and retention, the availability of this technique, and their intention to use it in the future. Some pedagogical suggestions on the provision and designs of multimedia annotations and suggestions for future research are presented at the end of the study.
Other Identifiers: GN0698210683
Appears in Collections:學位論文

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