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Title: 以客語為母語的兒童習得被動式之實證研究
An Empirical Study of Hakka-Speaking Children's Acquisition of Passives
Authors: 陳純音博士
Dr. Chun-yin Doris Chen
Nancy Chia-ying Chang
Keywords: 母語習得
language acquisition
bun construction
age effects
task effects
property effects
Issue Date: 2009
Abstract: 本研究在探討以客語為母語的兒童被動式之習得。旨在驗證客語被動式的六大屬性(如:主事者不可省略性、語法複雜度、複指代詞之使用、(不)幸意涵、生命性/無生命性,和動詞及物性)在母語習得過程中所扮演的角色。研究議題包含屬性效應、副屬性型態難易度、題型效應、非典型作答模式、以及年齡效應。本研究設計兩個實驗題型,一是圖片選擇題,二是看圖回答。研究對象為75位客語母語人士,含60位平均年齡為4至7歲的兒童及15位成人。 實驗結果顯示,不同的屬性、副屬性型態、題型及年齡,皆對客語被動式習得有一定之影響。兒童對被動式六大屬性的回應顯示以下習得次序:生命性/無生命性及(不)幸意涵最容易習得,動詞及物性、主事者不可省略性與語法複雜度其次,難度最高者為複指代詞之使用。此階層性指出語意特性較語法特性易習得。此趨勢亦可見於副屬性型態難易度的表現。在題型效應方面,年齡層愈低的兒童在圖片選擇題的表現優於在看圖回答的表現,顯示其理解能力與口語能力在發展上的差異。此外,在非典型答案模式的分析中,我們歸納了六種主要作答型態:無回應、關鍵詞、主動句、被動句、語碼轉換、及不合文法語句。根據此作答型態,兒童口語發展歷經幾個階段方漸成熟,而7歲則為客語被動式發展的完全成熟階段。本研究期以此對客語教學有所助益。
The present study aims to investigate L1 acquisition of Hakka passives to see if the six properties played roles in the development, i.e., No Truncation, Syntactic Complexity, the Resumptive Pronoun, Adversity, Animacy/Inanimacy, and Verbal Transitivity. The examined issues of the research were property effects, difficulties of sub properties, task effects, other elicited patterns, and age effects. To approximate a speaker’s inner knowledge of Hakka passives, this study adopted a comprehension task (a picture selection task, PS Task), and a production task (a picture-cued production task, PP Task). The subjects of this study consisted of an experimental group (60 Hakka-speaking children) and a control group (15 adults). The children were further divided into four groups according to their mean age ranged from 4 to 7. The overall results indicated that major properties, sub properties, tasks, and age, were all determinant factors in the acquisition of Hakka passives. From the young subjects’ performances on the six major properties, a hierarchical sequence of L1 acquisition of Hakka passives was found: Animacy/Inanimacy = Adversity > Verbal Transitivity = No Truncation = Syntactic Complexity > Resumptive Pronoun. The hierarchy suggested a tendency that semantic concepts, i.e., Animacy/Inanimacy, Adversity, and Verbal Transitivity, were less challenging than syntactic properties, such as No Truncation, Syntactic Complexity, and Resumptive Pronoun. The semantic-syntax dissimilarity was also revealed when detecting each sub property. Concerning the task effects, the children performed much better on the comprehension task than on the production task. Furthermore, six main types were found in the subjects’ production data: no-elicitation, key words, active expressions, passive expressions, code-switching, and ungrammatical responses. Three stages were defined to account for the developmental trend of each age group. Finally, it was found that the seven-year-olds had reached the adult level both in perception and in production. Given the developmental order, the study was attempted to dedicate to the teaching of the Hakka dialect.
Other Identifiers: GN0695210216
Appears in Collections:學位論文

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