工作設計與個人工作適配對於工作滿意度與工作表現之影響:泰國與台灣工作者的實證研究 The Impact of P-J Fit and Work Design on Job Satisfaction and Job Performance:A Study of Thai and Taiwanese Employees

Date
2016
Authors
吳寶麗
Nicha Sukparungsee
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Abstract
工作設計對工作成果的影響很大,尤其是工作滿意度和工作表現。工作設計包含了不同層次的工作特性與安排,籍以完成最終的工作目標,其中員工能夠覺得適合這份工作,將能夠有助於他的工作表現。在這項研究中,研究者將檢驗工作設計、工作適配與工作表現之間的關係,並探討文化差異的影響。 儘管泰國和台灣同是亞洲國家也有許多相似的文化習俗。然而,這二個國家實際上仍然有些微的差異,例如說泰國人較有規範,而台灣人則變通、储蓄和投资在未來的生活。因此本研究認為台灣人在工作設計對於員工與工作適配及工作表現的影響力會比泰國人來的強,本研究將利用統計模型來檢驗國籍的不同是否對於變數的關係有所影響之調節效果。 本研究在泰國收集涵蓋各行各業之工作者的數據,探討工作設計、員工工作適配的關係。總共有204個樣本,其中包含了163位女性(79.9%)和41位男性(20.1%)。同時研究者也會引用泰國人及台灣人的數據質料做為比較分析,以瞭解二國家彼此之間的文化差異。 根據本研究分析的結果可發現大部分的研究假設都成立。例如:工作設計會正向影響到工作適配以及工作成果(滿意度與表現)。工作適配也可以影響到工作結果,同時也是一個重要的中介變數。另外,國家的調節效果存在於工作適配對工作結果的影響。泰國人有比較強的影響力在於工作設計對於工作適配的影響,進一步的對工作成果的影響有較強的作用。相對的台灣人在工作設計對工作滿意度的影響比較強,也就是說工作設計越理想的環境,對台灣人的工作越感到滿意。 總而言之,工作設計很重要,因為它可影響到工作成果。不過,如能透過工作適配則工作設計與工作成果之間的影響會變得更強。因此工作設計會影響工作適配,且工作適配會影響到工作效果。另外,文化差異也可以影響到各國家的不同架構。最後,本研究對於工作設計的相關特性進行討論並提出實際作法,並且對未來研究建議與限制。
Work design has a great impact on work outcomes, especially on job satisfaction and job performance. As work design combines all kinds of work together, for those who feel fit, they will feel satisfied and perform well on their job. In this research, the researcher had examined on the relationship between work design, person-job fit, nationality and work outcomes, taking into account the culture differences between two countries, which are Thailand and Taiwan. Even though Thailand and Taiwan are both Asian countries that shares a lot of cultural practices, both countries still have some different way of practices; such as, Thai people are normative, while Taiwanese are pragmatic. In this point, Taiwanese save and invest more for future life. Therefore, this research predicts that effects of work design on person-job fit and work outcomes of Taiwanese would be stronger than Thai people. The survey was conducted in Thailand in order to collect data for determining the impact of work design, person-job fit and nationality towards work outcomes on Thai people. And the researcher also compared Thai data with Taiwanese data in order to see the difference between the two countries. The data was collected in a full length of different industries in Thailand. The sample data had 204 samples, which consisted of 163 females (79.9%) and 41 males (20.1%). The researcher then performed a series of analysis in order to understand the situations of work design, P-J fit, job performance and job satisfaction. The results of the analysis can mostly support the hypothesis. For instance, Work design can predict P-J fit and work outcomes (job satisfaction and job performance). P-J fit can predict work outcomes, and also play an important role as a mediator. However, the moderation of nationality only partially supported the hypothesis because differences only exist when the impact of work design on P-J fit, which eventually impact on work outcomes is stronger for Thais. On the contrary, the impact of work design on job satisfaction is stronger for Taiwanese, which means that good work design makes Taiwanese feel more satisfied with their job. In conclusion, work design is very important because it can have an effect on work outcomes. However, the relationship between work design and work outcomes becomes stronger when it passes through P-J fit. Thence, work design impacts on P-J fit, which finally impacts work outcomes. Moreover, the differences in culture can also have an impact on differences of this relationship in different countries. Finally, the implication of this research for work design and the practical methods of work design along with limitations and recommendation to future study were discussed.
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Keywords
工作設計, 個人工作適配, 工作滿意度, 工作表現, 文化差異, Work design, Person-job fit, Job satisfaction, Job performance, Nationality
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