Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://rportal.lib.ntnu.edu.tw:80/handle/20.500.12235/94430
Title: 淡水地方社會之信仰重構與發展——以清水祖師信仰為論述中心(1945年以前)
Beliefs reconstruction and development of Tamsui local society:Centered on Qingshui Zushi Belief(before 1945)
Authors: 陳國川
林聖欽
Chen, Kuo-Chuan
Lin, Sheng-Chin
王怡茹
Wang, I-Ju
Keywords: 淡水
信仰重構
清水祖師
傳說
清法戰爭
鼠疫
紳商
Tamsui
beliefs reconstruction
Qingshui Zushi
Legend
Sino-French War
plague
gentry
Issue Date: 2012
Abstract: 淡水自清乾隆年間漢人聚落發展以來,移民依各式需求興建各種類型廟宇,地方社會逐漸形成以福佑宮為中心,其他信仰多元並立的信仰型態。然而,這樣的信仰模式卻在清法戰爭後、日治初期、日治中期出現幾次轉變,其中又以清水祖師的信仰地位轉變最為明顯。為探究清代以迄日治時期淡水地方社會信仰如何重構、發展,本論文以地理學關注的「人地」關係、「人人」關係為核心觀點,討論宗教活動與環境的互動關係,以及地方紳商如何透過其文化權力網絡,影響社會信仰發展。本論文之研究成果有四: 第一、淡水雖然不是一個擁有良好自然條件的港口聚落,卻因其位居臺北盆地河流出海口的區位因素,成為促使地方社會發展之重要原因。隨著漢人聚落發展,地方社會逐漸形成以福佑宮為中心,其他信仰多元並立的信仰型態。 第二、「清法戰爭」是造成淡水地方社會信仰第一次重構的關鍵因素。清光緒年間,淡水港因其經濟與戰略地位,成為清法戰爭主要戰場。受戰火波及與法軍對臺灣海岸進行長時間經濟封鎖之影響,民間信仰成為地方社會民眾重要的精神寄託,進而形構神祇顯靈助戰傳說。尤其在光緒皇帝賜匾予地方三大信仰神祇後,不僅使清水祖師信仰地位大為提升,地方社會信仰結構也由福佑宮獨大的單核心模式,重構為以「媽祖(福佑宮)、觀音佛祖(龍山寺)、清水祖師」並重的三核心信仰模式。 第三、疾病(鼠疫)是造成淡水地方社會信仰二次重構的關鍵因素。日治初期,淡水因其港口區位因素,成為中國沿海各省傳來的鼠疫之主要入侵、傳播地。初期在官方無法全面掌控疫情的情況下,淡水民眾尋求傳統「迎神除穢」儀式,舉行清水祖師遶境活動。隨著鼠疫受到控制,遶境轉而成為地方重要的廟會活動,清水祖師信仰地位益加提升。再加上原為清末市街三大信仰的觀音佛祖(龍山寺)逐漸沒落,日治初期淡水地方社會信仰再重構為「媽祖(福佑宮)、清水祖師」並重的二元核心型態。 第四、地方紳商是維持清水祖師信仰地位的關鍵群體。日治中期,淡水港因其位居出海口之區位因素,面臨港道淤塞、港口機能退卻的環境問題。為挽回商況,地方紳商主導行之有年的清水祖師遶境活動,製造人潮與消費。1931年時,為解決祭祀空間問題,地方紳商籌組廟宇建築委員會,投入清水巖祖師廟籌備工作。這些參與清水祖師廟務之紳商藉由自身所累積各式「資本」,動員地方各組織、團體與民眾,齊力為建廟事務作努力,打破地方社會長期以祖籍、業緣為主的社會關係,形成一以清水祖師為中心、超越我群關係之新的共同體。因此,清水祖師信仰在地方紳商的運作下,得以維持其信仰地位,直至今日仍是淡水地方社會重要之信仰神祇。
Tamsui since the development of the Han Chinese village in the Qing Dynasty, Qianlong period, immigrants based on all kinds of needs for the construction of various types of temples. Local society to Matsu (Fuyou Temple, 福佑宮) for the center of religious worships other gods diverse side by side situation. However, this belief pattern changes after the Sino-French War, the early and the mid of Japanese Rule, especially the status of the Qingshui Zushi (清水祖師)belief is most obvious. In order to explore how Tamsui local social beliefs would be reconstructed and developed during Qing Dynasty to the Japanese colonial period. In this thesis the “man-land relationship” and “man-man relationship” of the geography of concern would be discussed as the core of point of view. In man-land relationship, it would be discussed that the interaction between people and the environment, in other words, the face of natural and economic environment changes, how the local people in response to, and then change the original local social belief structure. In man-man relationship, it would be discussed the cultural nexus of power of the local gentry, and their impact on the development of local beliefs. The achievements of this research: First, although Tamsui is not a village of the port with good natural conditions, it becomes important reason to promote local social development because of its location in the Tamsui River to the sea location factors. Second, resulting in local beliefs for the first time reconstructed, the key factor is the Battle of the Sino-French War of Tamsui. Third, the disease (plague) is the key factor in secondary reconstruction of Tamsui local social beliefs. Fourth, the local gentry is the key to maintaining Qingshui Zushi belief status groups.
URI: http://etds.lib.ntnu.edu.tw/cgi-bin/gs32/gsweb.cgi?o=dstdcdr&s=%22http://etds.lib.ntnu.edu.tw/cgi-bin/gs32/gsweb.cgi?o=dstdcdr&s=id=%22GN8962300401%22.&%22.id.&
http://rportal.lib.ntnu.edu.tw:80/handle/20.500.12235/94430
Other Identifiers: GN8962300401
Appears in Collections:學位論文

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