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The Spatiotemporal Characteristics and Case Analysis on the Typhoon Disasters in Taiwan
Typhoon is the major meteorological disaster in Taiwan. Although Taiwan’s territory is not large, yet because the natural and social condition difference in each county and city, Typhoon disaster has very obvious spatial difference in Taiwan. “Space” is always very important tradition in geography, and “disaster risk research” is even an ever-increasing and important domestic and oversea research topic in recent years. In this study, typhoon in Taiwan is used as the research target to analyze the typhoons in Taiwan for the past five decades in terms of quantity, strength and path characteristic and its quantitative relationship with the number of death it caused. Moreover, from the compositional factors of disaster risk, for example, hazard, exposure and vulnerability, general risk analysis and assessment for the typhoon death disaster in the recent eight years is performed. It can be seen from the research result that in the past five decades, the number of death caused by typhoon in each year shows a trend of decrease, flatness and then increase, which shows that the death caused by typhoon does not show a continuous decreasing trend along with the advancement in technology and economy. If we just simply consider from the point of view of typhoon’s strength, quantity and path, it would be impossible to explain the change in the death number completely. If we use Cluster Analysis to sort out major typhoon accidents with higher death number and filter out typhoon accidents that are below the average value, then the correlation coefficient between death number and the number of typhoon can be above 0.9. This shows the key influence of major typhoon accidents statistically. In addition, as compared to the past, the quantity of the typhoon that invaded Taiwan in the recent decade shows great increase, and the path also shows obvious change. In this study, two major clusters are come out further from the entire statistical data, namely, general typhoon accident and major typhoon accident. In general typhoon accident, the death case usually occurs outside, and the death population belongs to medium age male persons who go out frequently and have the chance to expose themselves. This part can be explained in terms of disaster consciousness difference, cultural background and vocational characteristic difference between male and female. For major typhoon accident, the disaster-receiving unit is usually a family or an entire village; hence, the distribution is more even in terms of age and gender. The death disaster of general typhoon accident usually distributes among many cities and counties, that is, there is no obvious area characteristic; moreover, the stage with highest death risk is almost not at the time when the rain and wind are strongest, instead, it is at stage with weaker rain and wind. Furthermore, major typhoon accident can be divided into metropolitan and mountain and rural type. The death risk for mountain and rural type has higher overlap with the potentially higher disaster region, and it also has better correlation to the rainfall. As compared to the rural area, the metropolitan area, due to better anti-disaster engineering and accident-handling capability, usually has lower correlation between disaster potential and death risk.
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