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Title: 八仙山林場與大雪山林場的林業經營與影響
The Forestry Development and Influence of Mt. Ba-Xian Timber Land and Mt. Da-Xue Timber Land
Authors: 陳國川
Kuo-Chuan Chen
Keywords: 八仙山林場
Mt. Ba-Xian Timber Land
Mt. Da-Xue Timber Land
the Japanese forestry exploitation style
the American forestry exploitation style
Issue Date: 2011
Abstract: 台灣接觸科學林業產生有規劃的經營從日治時期開始,日本政府受當時世界潮流的影響,欲將台灣林業建立為法正林模式。日治末期為因應戰時所需,卻過度開採,造成國民政府統治初期,需修養身息停止砍伐。但在經濟需求下,國民政府延續日治法正林模式進行開採,之後國民政府機關及政策受美援的影響,從原本的日式經營模式轉變為美式經營模式。本研究案例八仙山林場與大雪山林場,正能顯示這兩種經營模式對於林場影響的差異。 同位於台灣中部的兩大林場:八仙山林場與大雪山林場,在未經人為利用前,範圍內原始林相皆呈現垂直分布。最早進入這片原始森林邊緣的是泰雅族南、北勢番,因少量利用多保持原貌。隨清代及日治政府的政策及漢人對於樟樹的需求下,漢人逐漸取代泰雅族的分布,且因軍工料進行擇伐樟木;伐樟製腦進行皆伐,後者砍伐規模大,且砍伐土地不待次生林的生長,直接開闢為耕地並定居形成聚落,不見天然林相。相較於此時期開發重點的樟木,松、杉及檜木這些溫帶林的樹種,受限於開伐技術及樹種生長的環境而無法加以利用。日治時期林業開伐開始進入溫帶林。八仙山林場是在政府力量下成立的官營林場。當日本政府最初以需求針葉木的情勢下,八仙山林場主要選擇純度較高的針葉林砍伐。砍伐過程中,伐木部分無論器具、演進皆以人力為主,再加上集材以人力集材,運輸則以森林鐵道及架空索道為主要運輸工具。因此八仙山林場無法進行大規模的皆伐,於造林時,部分林相仍含有砍伐剩餘樹種,且造林成效不佳,而呈現天然林相與次生林相互相參雜的情形。大雪山林場是國民政府為了增加木材產量,而使用美式林場經營方式辦理的示範林場。在規劃時期,由於有美國航照技術的引進,使得林場得以全面規劃。於開伐時期,大雪山引進不同於以往的美式採集方式,如動力鏈鋸伐木、高曳集材、聯車運林、批量製材及進行初步加工。其砍伐效率較以往倍增許多,且在林道的配合下,深入各林區進行伐木,而小規模的皆伐作業,更造成天然林相快速的消逝。造林的部分亦採用美式技術以二階段育苗及塑膠袋裝套,提升造林成功率,雙重因素下,大雪山林場呈現以人工種植純林為主的林相。
The systematic and scientific operation of Taiwan’s forestry started from the Japanese ruled period. The Japanese government, following the world trend, intended to make the Taiwan forestry as the normal forest model. At the end of Japanese ruled period, Taiwan’s forests had been over exploited due to the large demand during the war. Thus, it had to stop cutting trees temporarily at the beginning of the ROC government. However, the ROC government following the normal forest model exploited the forestry again because of the economical demands. Yet the exploitation of Taiwan’s forestry shifted from the Japanese normal forest model to the American style as Americans started to offer their economical support. The two cases of the present study— Mt. Ba-Xian Timber Land and Mt. Da-Xue Timber Land could display the differences between the Japanese exploitation style and the American style. The Mt. Ba-Xian Timber Land and the Mt. Da-Xue Timber Land, located in central Taiwan, both have vertical transformation of their primitive forests. The southern group and northern group of the Atayal Tribe are the first one to enter the area of these two timber lands. The image of the forests stayed almost the same because the Atayal people made little use of the forests. During the Ching Dynasty and the Japanese ruled period, the Han people required more camphor woods. They cut off a large amount of camphors to make the oil and adopted the lands as the cultivated ones and villages. Therefore, the primitive forestry was unable to see after the development of the Han people. However, the temperate tree species like pines, China firs, and junipers were unable to exploit because of the exploitation skills and their habitats. It was not until the Japanese ruled period did Taiwan forestry development focus on the temperate tree species. The Mt. Ba-Xian Timber Land is an official timber land whose focus was on the coniferous wood because of the Japanese’s large demand. The felling and extraction plan including the equipments and developments mostly depended on the labor power. The transportation of the woods mainly relied on the railway and skyline system. So the Mt. Ba-Xian Timber Land was unable to carry out a large-scale clear-cutting and some forests still kept some original tree species. Also, the consequence of the afforestation was not as good as expected. Thus, the Mt. Ba-Xien Timber Land looked more like the mixture of the primitive and planted forests. On the other hand, the Mt. Da-Xue Timber Land is a model timber land following the American forestry strategy to increase the output of woods. This timber land worked out with the help of the American air navigation skills. As for the cutting strategies, the Mt. Da-Xue Timber Land adopted the American exploitation skills and equipments, such as chain saws, high-lead system, trucks, standardization and initial manufacturing. This increased the efficiency of cutting quite a lot. Moreover, the forest trails enabled people to enter more forest areas. The small-scale clear-out strategy also made the primitive forests disappear. During the afforestation process, the Mt. Da-Xue Timber Land also utilized the American strategies to grow seedlings with plastics in two phases, which increases the chances to make artificial forests. Because of the clear-out strategy and the new skills to grow seedlings, the Mt. Da-Xue Timber Land appeared more like the planted forests.
Other Identifiers: GN0597231102
Appears in Collections:學位論文

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