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Title: 動態性避難道路路線規劃
Dynamic Route Planning of Evacuation Road
Authors: 張國楨
Kuo-Chen Chang
Meng-Hung Jou
Keywords: 避難道路
Refuge Route
Service Area
Road Block
Network Analysis
Geographic Information System
Issue Date: 2005
Abstract: 劇烈地震發生過後對於交通系統將帶來直接的衝擊。從九二一經驗來看,主要受創災區如東勢、豐原、集集等地皆非台灣人口密集的都會地區。因此相較於過去阪神、洛杉磯等都會型地震,造成的災害形式並不相同。以九五年日本阪神大地震的經驗來看,震後道路系統與維生管線的破壞為市區大火延燒數十日的主因。而人員的傷亡與經濟損失主要集中於震後的應變與復原階段。台灣都會地區地狹人稠、經濟高度發展,一旦發生如九二一規模等級之地震,若無相關的配套措施則造成的實質與社會經濟損失將不可小覷。 道路系統於平時肩負一般車流的運輸功能性,於震後立即轉換為以配合避難、救災緊急性工作為第一要務。道路系統為震後第一時間啟動之防災空間系統。為整合其他防救災空間系統的重要樞紐。國內過去避難路線規劃的焦點,擺在道路本體的防災條件設定。此類震前預先設定的逃生路線隨著震後道路受損程度輕重不一而必須有所調整。因此,基於震後即時性路線規劃之需求,本研究首先依供給與需求的原則出發劃分臨時收容場所之服務範圍,作為整合防災空間資源與路網分析起迄點設定的基礎。 對於道路本體及四周結構物嚴重損毀之下可能造成之道路阻斷,本研究將引入GIS路網分析於即時性避難路線規劃畫中。修改過去GIS路網分析中單純以道路通行成本為路徑搜尋順序之方式,由震後即時性的車道數資訊出發,整合道路通阻模式於GIS路網資料結構中。以ESRI ArcGIS 8.3為應用軟體介面建立『避難道路評估系統』,配合台北市大安區避難據點、道路的選定建立地理資料庫(GeoDatabase), 實際進行道路阻斷的模擬模擬與路網分析,提供震後輔助避難路線決策之參考。
Severe earthquakes may have a great impact on the transportation system. From the experience of Chi-Chi Earthquake, the destroyed regions of Fengyuan, Dongshi, and Chi-Chi are not populous urban areas. The type of disaster is different from those happened in big cities, like the Great Hanshin Earthquake and the Northridge Earthquake. Take the Great Hanshin earthquake for example, the main reason that the fire lasted dozens of days was the destruction of the pipelines and road network systems. Human sufferings and economic losses remained in the response stage after the earthquake. Urban areas in Taiwan are not only crowded and populous, but also highly and economically developed. Without proper preparations, onset of strong earthquakes equal to the scale of Chi-Chi Earthquake will bring substantial social and economic losses. The road system, responsible for carrying heavy traffic flow at regular hours, shifts to the end of refuge and rescue after earthquakes. It is also the first spatial rescue system activated after earthquakes. At the same time, it serves a pivotal role in integrating other spatial rescue systems. In the past, domestic refuge route planning was focused on road conditions for disaster prevention. This kind of presumed refuge routes must adjust weighing the degree of damage. Based on the need of real-time refuge planning, I conduct the following research. First, I define the service area of temporary shelter according to the supply-and-demand principle. It is the basis for integration spatial rescue resources and also for the network analysis of start-and-end point setup. Regarding the blockage by the road and surrounding structure damage, I apply the GIS network analysis in real-time route planning. I modify the GIS network analysis in which travel cost is the sole factor in the searching of the route. With the information of post-quake real-time lane numbers, I integrate the lane blockage factor into the GIS network data model, and then establish the “refuge route choice”system by the ESRI ArcGIS8.3. Taking Da-An District of Taipei City for example, I set up the GeoDtabase using the data of shelter areas and roads in the district. Then, I conduct the road blockage simulation and network analysis. The method will provide another way to aid the decision-making of the route choice after the earthquake.
Other Identifiers: G0069223003
Appears in Collections:學位論文

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