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Title: 問題解決在科學學習成就評量上的應用
Other Titles: The Application of Problem-Solving on the Assessment of Science Learning Achievement
Authors: 楊坤原
Issue Date: Jan-1999
Publisher: 臺灣師範大學科學教育中心
National Taiwan Normal University Science Education Center
Abstract: 問題解決(解題)能力的培養是科學教學主要的目標之一。解題的過程涉及敘述性知識與程序性知識的使用,藉由解題不但可幫助科學教師得知學生組織與運用知識的情形,亦能促進學生主動建構知識與思考,故以之作為一種科學學習成就評量的方式應頗為合適。 本文旨在探討以問題解決作為科學學習成就評量的可行性。全文共分六個部份。緒論部份說明教學與評量的關係,並由認知心理學與建構論的觀點指出以解題作為科學學習成就評量的適切性。第二部份主要在分析解題的本質及其與知識的關係。第三部份介紹解題策略與解題歷程。第四部份列舉專家與生手在科學解題表現上的差異。第五部份敘述科學解題研究的發現對科學學習成就評量的意涵。結語部份則為教學、學習與評量(解題)的關係與未來發展作一綜合討論。
One of the major purposes of science instruction is to foster students to be a problem solver. The processes of problem-solving involved the using of declarative and procedural knowledge. By means of problem-solving, it could not only help science teachers to know how students organizing and utilizing their knowledge, but promote students constructing knowledge and thinking actively. In view of these advantages, it is a suitable way to assess the achievement of science learning by problem-solving. The objective of this paper is to inquire the availability of problem-solving as a assessment of science learning achievements. This paper was organized into six sections. The introduction section clarified the relationship between instruction and assessment, and argued that it was appropriate to use problem-solving as a method to assess science learning achievement in terms of cognitive psychology and constructivism. The second section analyzed the nature of problem-solving and the relationship between problem solving and knowledge. The third section introduced the strategies and processes of problem solving. The fourth section listed the differences between the experts and novices on the science problem solving performances. The fifth section described the implications of the results of science problem solving researches. The conclusion section contained both the remark of the relationships among instruction, learning and assessment, and the future development of problem solving.
Other Identifiers: 89A6320D-C1B4-05C2-AA94-B6A810595E61
Appears in Collections:科學教育月刊

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