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The Development of Chinese Racial Essentialism Scale
racial essentialism belief
|Abstract:||種族本質信念（racial essentialism belief）為一種個體對於種族本質觀點的認知差異，近年來此概念已廣泛被應用至社會心理學各個領域，並已發展出相關測量工具。然而，過去多以成人為對象，少有研究者針對青少年進行量表編製。據此，本研究即欲發展一套適合國內青少年以上個體使用的種族信念量表：中文版「種族本質觀量表」（Chinese racial essentialism scale；CRES）。本量表翻譯自No與其同僚（No等人, 2008）發展的種族信念量表，在中文化修訂上分為五個部分，首先以115位中學生進行預試分析，並針對預試結果進行題意修訂以利青少年施測。第二部分即以148位中學生對調整後的CRES進行項目分析，結果顯示，CRES各題項間具有良好的鑑別度。第三部分對468位中學生進行信度分析、探索性因素及效標關聯效度的檢定。結果顯示，CRES具有穩定的二因素結構，兩子量表之內部一致性穩定（Cronbach’s α值 = .70 ~ .79），且與各效標（智力信念、五大人格特質、認知閉鎖性與創造力）間的關係也大致符合預期，顯示CRES整體構念的有效性。第四部分額外抽取292位中學生進行驗證性因素分析，考驗其因素結構的複合效度，結果發現，二因素結構符合適配度指標的標準門檻。最後，以63位中學生間隔三週後施測，結果顯示，CRES具有良好的再測信度（r = .52 ~ .62）。綜合上述，透過五群不同的樣本比較來看，CRES具有穩定的信、效度，且適合青少年以上的個體使用。最後本研究針對CRES之後續研究與應用進行延伸討論，整體而言，CRES能有效測量青少年在種族信念上的個別差異，亦能延伸預測個體的心態封閉性和創造力，對教育、社會與人格心理學等領域具有實際應用價值。|
The racial essentialism belief, a type of individual cognitive differences towards racial views, has been transformed into psychological treatments and widely adapted to socio-psychological domains recently. However, researchers aimed at adults mostly instead of adolescents to develop scales in the past. According to this opinion, the purpose of this study was to develop a Chinese version of the Racial Essentialism Scale(CRES) and this scale was to aim to adolescents above to measure. The CRES was translated from the English version of the RES developed by No and his colleagues(2008). This study was divided into five parts, first, item translation and analysis of results from a pilot study with a sample of 115 Taiwanese junior high school students suggested that part of items should be amended in order to measure for adolescents. Second, the CRES was adjusted and its item analysis of results from a formal test with 148 Taiwanese junior high school students suggested that the items were satisfactory. Third, reliability and exploratory factor analysis of results from a formal test with 468 Taiwanese junior high school students suggested that stable two-factor structure of CRES and the Cronbach’s α coefficients ranging from .70 to .79 of subscales. Moreover, criterion-related validity analysis results suggested that the relationships between the subscales and criterions and roughly in line with expectations. These results demonstrated the whole construct effectiveness of CRES. Fourth, goodness-of-fit indices and confirmatory factor analysis of results from additional 292 Taiwanese junior high school students provided evidence for the composite reliability of the scale. Fifth, good test-retest reliabilities from .52 to .62 were supported by results from 63 Taiwanese junior high school students after an interval of three weeks. These findings suggest that the CRES could aim to adolescents above to measure with good reliability and validity. Finally, potential theoretical and practical applications of the measure were discussed. In conclusion, CRES could effectively measure individual differences in racial belief of adolescents, and predicted close-minded and creativity. For educational, social, and personality psychological domains, it was practical applied valuable.
|Appears in Collections:||學位論文|
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