Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://rportal.lib.ntnu.edu.tw:80/handle/20.500.12235/90286
Title: 國小五年級兒童自我調整寫作歷程的教與學
The teaching and learning of the self-regulated writing process in a primary-5 class
Authors: 單文經
Shan, Wen-Jing
向天屏
Hsiang, Tien-Ping
Keywords: 自我調整寫作歷程
自我調整歷程導向寫作教學
寫作發展歷程模式
自我調整策略發展
限制式寫作(引導式作文)
self-regulated writing process
self-regulated process-oriented model of writing instruction
process model of writing development
self-regulated strategic development (SRSD)
limited writing
Issue Date: 2006
Abstract: 本研究透過質性研究的歷程,以研究者任教之班級學生為研究參與者,藉由放聲思考寫作、參與觀察、訪談、問卷調查、文件分析等方式蒐集資料,先分析剛就讀五年級兒童的記敘文自我調整寫作歷程,據此調整寫作教學方案,再探究記敘文自我調整歷程導向寫作教學在國小五年級班級情境中的實踐之道與教學效果。茲將本研究的主要發現,摘要如下: 一、剛就讀五年級兒童的自我調整寫作歷程 (一)兒童在寫作時,長期記憶、運作記憶與短期記憶均扮演重要的角色。 (二)就兒童的寫作認知歷程而言,「轉譯階段」應可再細分為「當下計畫」、「內容產出」、「寫出草稿」、「當下評估」、「當下修改」、「轉譯階段的閱讀」。而「轉譯後檢視階段」,也應細分為「閱讀」、「評估」與「修改」等三個次歷程。 (三)兒童在寫作時,能同時扮演讀者的角色,以及考量外在讀者的想法。「閱讀行為」出現在下列三個時間點:1.為了確認已經寫好的文句內容;2.為了幫助自己產生新的想法,並且使語意前後連貫;3.檢查遣詞用字、標點符號的運用是否正確,文句是否通順。 (四)兒童在寫作時的動機,促使兒童主動透過目標設定、自我提醒(自我對話)、自我評量,採取行動修改文章,調整寫作時的情感、內在生理狀況、外在物理環境,適時尋求協助,同時兼顧社會環境中重要他人的想法的循環歷程,完成寫作任務。而寫作後的自我評量,會影響兒童對下次寫作成品的期望。因此兒童寫作的歷程是兼顧認知、動機、情感與環境互動的自我調整歷程。 (五)若比較文章品質相對高低兒童之自我調整寫作歷程,則發現文章品質較高的兒童,長期記憶中儲存的與寫作計畫有關的知識、讀者的知識、寫作策略的認知與後設認知知識較豐富;目標設定、自我監控與自我評量的能力也較高;在寫作前、轉譯中,甚至轉譯後,都會構思寫作的題材,將構念稍加組織再寫出草稿,而且會反覆的閱讀、修改文章,兼顧表層修改與內容的修改。而文章品質較低的兒童,除了在寫作前藉由回憶產生構念外,最依賴的是當下計畫;只閱讀「已經寫完的前一句」,來幫助自己寫出前後連貫的句子,修改行為也只發生在「寫出想法後的瞬間」,只重視表層修改。 二、「自我調整歷程導向寫作教學方案」的內涵 寫作教學應兼顧語文基本知識、寫作認知策略(寫作前訂定目標與擬訂計畫策略、寫出想法與不斷閱讀、修改策略與小組討論閱讀檢查修改策略)與寫作自我調整策略(自我教導、目標設定、自我評量、自我記錄、資源經營)的教學,並且提供各種寫作策略的歷程檢核表、文章品質檢核表與文章長度自我記錄表等過程性的協助;教學內涵、寫作題目的設計(限制式寫作-引導式作文題型)應與國語科課文文章結構、修辭教學的進度相結合。 三、寫作教學的效果 寫作教學介入後,多數兒童(包括學習障礙兒童)的寫作認知與後設認知知識、寫作策略歸因、寫作自我效能、對寫作與學習寫作的態度、寫作動機與自我期望、文章長度、自我調整寫作歷程與文章品質,均獲得提升與發展,而且能將課堂上針對限制式寫作題型所學之寫作知能,運用在完全命題寫作題型上。 本研究並根據研究發現,建構寫作能力發展中兒童之中文自我調整寫作歷程模式,也提供數點建議,供寫作教學者與寫作教學研究者之參考。
The purposes of this study were to analyze the self-regulated writing process of fifth grade students, and investigate the effects of teaching fifth grade students to become self-regulated writers in the normal classroom when writing narratives in Chinese. The teacher-researcher was also the self-regulated process-oriented writing instruction program developer, utilizing a qualitative approach with techniques such as participant observation, interviewing, thinking-aloud writing, and questionnaires to collect the data from September 2005 to May 2006. The conclusions of this study were summarized as follows: 1. When fifth grade children are writing narratives, long-term memory, working memory, and short-term memory were all involved in the self-regulated writing process. It was necessary to extend the components of translating to text generation, transcription, on-line planning, on-line evaluating, on-line revising, and reading text while translating. In addition, the components of post-translating should be extended to reading, evaluating, and revising. The motivation of children would force them to set goals, self-instruct, self-evaluate, and write and revise the text; in addition, children would take actions actively to regulate the conditions of physiology, physics, and social environment. Children who could write high quality articles had more declarative knowledge and procedural knowledge about writing, and a higher command of metacognition, planning, reading, and revising repeatedly while writing. 2. Declarative knowledge including the text construction, rhetoric, punctuation marks etc. should be taught before procedural knowledge, i.e., how to write; Both cognitive strategies and self-regulated strategies should be included in the writing instruction; Limited writing was good for teaching children to plan and write narratives. The writing instruction should link up with the Chinese curriculum. 3. After the self-regulated process-oriented writing instruction, most of the children improved substantially in their knowledge and attitude toward writing in several categories, as well as the motivation, self-efficacy, self expectancy, strategy attributions, the length of narratives, the quality of articles, and the self-regulated writing process. Even when children were doing the thinking-aloud writing with no limitations, they could still use the knowledge, writing cognitive strategies and writing self-regulated strategies which were learned in the writing class. The self-regulated writing process model for developing writers was proposed according to the results. Some suggestions for teachers and future researchers were made as well.
URI: http://etds.lib.ntnu.edu.tw/cgi-bin/gs32/gsweb.cgi?o=dstdcdr&s=%22http://etds.lib.ntnu.edu.tw/cgi-bin/gs32/gsweb.cgi?o=dstdcdr&s=id=%22GN0891000130%22.&%22.id.&
http://rportal.lib.ntnu.edu.tw:80/handle/20.500.12235/90286
Other Identifiers: GN0891000130
Appears in Collections:學位論文

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