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foregrounding and contrasting
The objectives of the study comprise the follows: 1. Enhance the writing effectiveness of junior high school students through “Process-Based Writing Instruction with Rhetoric Integration.” 2. Understand the attitudes and reactions after students have taken the course on “Process-Based Writing Instruction with Rhetoric Integration.” 3. Understand the implementation course of “Process-Based Writing Instruction with Rhetoric Integration” with review and reflection as reference for future essay teaching. The study participants consisted of students from one Taipei City junior high school where the researcher works. The two 8th-grade two classes of the study participants adopted the “Non-equivalent Pretest-posttest Design” of experimental research to test the effects of experimental variables in “Process-Based Writing Instruction with Rhetoric Integration” through “Essay Assessment Scale.” Additionally, the experimental group was required to retake the survey of “Feedback Questionnaire for Process-Based Writing Course with Rhetoric Integration” to understand the attitudes and reaction of students after taking the course on “Process-Based Writing Instruction with Rhetoric Integration.” Finally, the qualitative data of the entire experiment process was collected through records of class, researcher reflection and student interview. The findings of the study are described in the follows: 1. Compared to students in the control group, students in the experimental group have achieved significant effect on dimensions including “Selection of materials and topics,” “organization and structure,” “choice of words,” “use of rhetoric,” “Chinese character error, format and punctuations,” and “total score” of the “Essay Assessment Scale” after the implementation of Process-Based Writing Instruction with Rhetoric Integration, implying such experimental course can truly improve the writing effectiveness of students. 2. In view of the percentage analysis and open answers of the feedback questionnaire, students observed that they have acquired much knowledge from the course on Process-Based Writing Instruction with Rhetoric Integration. Although the program on writing composition seemed difficult, the students held positive and affirmative attitudes towards the overall course plan. Particularly the students showed high satisfaction of 93.75% on the use of rhetoric, indicating the effects of Process-Based Writing Instruction with Rhetoric Integration. Moreover, the study also provides detailed records and analysis on the design and implementation of experimental course as reference for researchers in writing teaching and future research. Keywords：rhetoric, process-based writing, writing instruction, narrative writing, imitative expression, metaphor, foregrounding and contrasting
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