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Title: 以計畫行為理論探討影響大學生出國留學意向之因素
A Study of University Students' Intention to Study Abroad Based on the Theory of Planned Behavior
Authors: 王如哲
Wang, Ru-Jer
Hsueh, Chia-Ming
Keywords: 計畫行為理論
Theory of planned behavior
study abroad
structural equation modeling
Issue Date: 2016
Abstract: 有鑑於近年來我國大學生出國留學攻讀學位的人數逐年下降,長久下去將不利於我國海外人才庫的積累,進一步影響我國國際學術版圖。國內外對於大學生出國留學意向的研究多集中在短期留學的個別推拉因素的討論,鮮少針對長期留學的原因進行理論性的探究,因此本研究旨在以計畫行為理論為基礎,探討大學生對於出國留學的行為態度、主觀規範、知覺行為控制對出國留學行為意向之影響,以建構我國大學生出國留學行為意向模式。本研究以六所大學三、四年級的學生為研究對象,以「影響大學生出國留學行為意向因素問卷」進行調查,共計發放480份問卷,回收417份有效問卷,回收率為86.87%,並以描述統計、t檢定、單因子變異數分析、相關分析、集群分析、結構方程模式等方式進行資料分析,所得結果如下: 一、不同背景變項大學生,除性別外,其餘變項對於出國留學意向有顯著差異: (一)研究型大學學生在多項因素上顯著高於教學型大學學生 (二)工程和商管領域學生較擔心生活適應和語言溝通問題,外文領域學生的出國留學意向最高 (三)家庭社會經濟背景好的學生,其出國留學意向顯著高於較差的學生 二、根據社經背景高低及出國留學意向高低作區分,大學生在出國留學上可分為四種樣態:自主型、潛力型、勤奮型、困乏型,學校應對於不同的學生給予不同的協助。 三、大學生認為學校所能給的幫助有限,國內各大學應加強其在輔導學生出國留學上之角色。 四、計畫行為理論適合用於解釋大學生出國留學意向之影響因素: (一)我國大學生對於出國留學多持肯定態度,以行為態度對於出國留學意向之影響力最為顯著,其次為主觀規範,最後為知覺行為控制。 (二)基於信念的因素與所對應的直接測量因素有顯著相關。 五、大學生出國留學意向之模型架構配適度妥適。 根據研究結果建議政府應強化對於公費留學的經費編列與補助、加強與民間單位的合作、增加低家庭社經背景學生短期出國留學機會、提出跨部會合作方案,兼顧長短期留學者需求、教育部國際化品質視導應強化鼓勵本地生出國留學指標;建議大學應考量不同學生的情況給予不同的協助、加強與家長的溝通、主動提供學生出國留學所需資訊及服務,以及協助學生精進外語能力;針對未來研究者,建議可增加研究變項(如:人格特質、行為)、增加研究領域別、增加研究對象至研究生,或是與短期留學做比較,以提昇研究之全面性。
Recent years, the number of outbound students in Taiwan has decreased year by year. In the long run, it will not only affect the talent pool abroad but the international academic territory of Taiwan. However, most of the recent researches focus on the push and pull factors related to students short-term studying abroad instead of the intention of long-term degree seeking. Based on the Theory of planned behavior (TPB), this study aims to design a model of the factors affecting the students’ intention of studying abroad. Data was collected from 417 junior and senior students through a questionnaire distributed through 6 universities. SPSS and Amos were employed as data analysis tools to confirm our hypotheses and test against the research model. The findings of the study reveal that: 1.Besides gender, other background variables toward the intention to study abroad factors are with significant differences. 1)Research-oriented university students have higher intention to study abroad than teaching-oriented university students. 2)Students who major in foreign languages have higher intention to study abroad than those who major in business and engineering. 3)The education level, overseas studying and working experience and social economic status of parents play vital roles on behavioral attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavior control, and behavioral intention. 2.According to the extent of social economic status (SES) and the intention to study abroad, there are four types of student in study abroad: Autonomous, Potential, Hard-working and Hardship. Universities should give supports to students in accordance with their SES and intention to study abroad. 3.Students think the supports universities give to them are insufficient, universities should reinforce their role on helping students study abroad. 4.TPB is a suitable theory in analyzing university students’ intention to study abroad. 1)Most of the students have positive attitudes toward study abroad. Behavioral attitude has the most significant effect on the intention to study abroad, followed by subjective norm and perceived behavior control. 2)Belief-based factors have significant relations with direct-measured factors. 5.The TPB model of university students’ intention to study abroad fits well. This study addresses several suggestions. First, the government need to allocate more budget or reform the policy of governmental sponsorship for overseas study on encouraging more students study abroad, especially those from low-SES backgrounds. Also, the Ministry of Education (MOE) can try to cooperate with civil groups and other government departments to meet the needs of different students. Furthermore, the MOE should reflect on the criteria of Internationalization Quality Supervision and put more emphasis on the study abroad part. Second, different types of university should have different strategies and play different roles (information provider, motivator, integrator and guidance) to encourage students to study abroad. They should communicate with parents the benefits of study abroad, actively provide information to students, and help students improve their foreign language proficiency. Third, future studies can try to put other factors, such as personal traits and behavior, to expandthe TPB model and to increase the target to graduate students or other fields, or try to do the comparisons between long-term and short-term study abroad.
Other Identifiers: G0898000115
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