Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://rportal.lib.ntnu.edu.tw:80/handle/20.500.12235/89412
Title: 臺灣地區外籍配偶子女教育政策及其執行之研究-以國民教育為例
A study on the educational policy and its implementation of foreign spouses’ children in Taiwan— The case study of public education
Authors: 謝文全
張明輝
Heish Wen-Chyuan
Chang Ming-Huei
陳玉娟
Chen Yu-Juan
Keywords: 外籍配偶子女
教育政策
國民教育
foreign spouses’ children
educational policy
public education
Issue Date: 2006
Abstract: 本研究主要目的是在探究外籍配偶子女國民教育現況及其教育政策理論基礎、瞭解外籍配偶子女國民教育政策內涵及實施情形、探討外籍配偶子女國民教育政策執行問題及解決策略。最後,根據研究結論提出建議,以供未來擬定及推動外籍配偶子女國民教育政策之參考。 為達上述目的,本研究兼採文獻分析、問卷調查及訪談等研究方法,以文獻探討結果作為「臺灣地區外籍配偶子女國民教育政策調查問卷」編製之基礎,進行調查研究。最後,針對文獻探討及問卷調查結果,進一步編製訪談大綱,進行訪談,以瞭解教育行政人員、學校人員、專家學者及外籍配偶家庭成員等,對外籍配偶子女國民教育政策之看法及意見。問卷部分,共寄發問卷1,199份,實得有效問卷837份;訪談對象為16人。最後,根據文獻探討、問卷調查及訪談結果,形成本研究之結論,並據以提出建議,以達研究目的。 依據文獻探討、問卷調查及訪談結果發現,歸納出下列數項結論: 一、目前臺灣地區外籍配偶子女人數日益增加,就讀國小人數多於國中階段,且多集中在中南部及離島各縣市。 二、我國外籍配偶子女所面臨的教育問題中,以學業表現、學習態度、語言溝通、本身自信、文化適應及解決問題能力等問題較為嚴重。 三、外籍配偶子女教育問題多為後天環境所造成,而家庭、政府、社會、學校及學童等因素,皆可能會造成外籍配偶子女教育問題,其中以家庭因素影響程度為最大。 四、我國可採行的外籍配偶子女國民教育政策種類眾多,然目前經常落實者只有:課業輔導、生活常規訓練及身心障礙調適等三項,其餘政策執行仍不普遍,只是「偶爾做到」。 五、外籍配偶子女國民教育政策規劃宜遵循的原則計有:規定明確、滿足需求、尊重差異、機會均等及考量廣泛等原則;惟目前只做到機會均等原則。 六、 目前我國外籍配偶子女國民教育政策規劃的滿意度不高,其中較滿意學校層級的規劃,不滿意縣市政府教育局及教育部層級的規劃。 七、 外籍配偶子女教育經費宜由中央政府及縣市政府負擔為主,不應由社會公益團體、外籍配偶家庭或學校支付所有費用。 八、 外籍配偶子女國民教育政策相關經費的核銷流程彈性程度仍不足,而接受補助者的正確態度與認知仍未完全建立。 九、 教育部及教育局主管人員、學校人員、學生家長、大眾傳播媒體、政治人物、專家學者、民間社團及社區人士等類別對象,會影響外籍配偶子女國民教育政策的執行與落實;然實際執行過程中,社區人士所發揮的影響力偏低。 十、 協助解決我國外籍配偶子女國民教育政策執行困難對象中,以同事及自己的經驗最常使用,而以同事協助效果最好。另在十二類對象中,使用頻率越高者,協助效果越好。 十一、外籍配偶子女國民教育政策實施方式中,最認同「教育部、縣市政府教育局及學校共同訂定並執行」及「教育部訂定縣市及學校執行」模式,最不認同的是「學校訂定並執行」模式。 十二、針對我國外籍配偶子女國民教育政策執行滿意情況,填答者滿意「學校」的執行成效,但不滿意教育部及縣市的執行成果。 十三、外籍配偶家庭及學校的配合度足夠及等二十項策略,對政策執行具有重要影響性;然而在實際運作過程中,目前僅做到學校配合度足夠及政策制定過程合法化,其餘十八項皆未做到。 十四、不同背景填答者對外籍配偶子女教育情況及政策的看法,大同小異。 最後,綜合文獻探討、問卷調查及訪談結果,提出本研究的建議如下: 壹、對外籍配偶子女國民教育政策內容及執行方面的建議 一、外籍配偶子女國民教育政策焦點宜先置於學業表現、學習態度、語言溝通、本身自信、文化適應及解決問題能力的提升上。 二、要解決外籍配偶子女教育問題須同時兼顧家庭、政府、社會、學校及學童本身等因素,尤其首應克服家庭因素可能產生的負面影響。 三、目前外籍配偶子女國民教育政策內容宜加強聯絡網頁的建置、教材的編製、學童人際及生活常規的建立及鼓勵社區人士加入等議題。 四、政策內容規劃上宜加強落實規定明確、滿足需求、尊重差異及考量廣泛等原則。 五、外籍配偶子女國民教育政策經費宜由中央及縣市政府負擔,經費核銷流程宜增加彈性程度,並建立正確之接受補助的觀念。 六、執行與落實外籍配偶子女國民教育政策過程中,應重視社區人士、專家學者、民間社團及政治人物等對象的影響力和參與程度。 七、外籍配偶子女國民教育政策的實施宜採用中央、地方政府及學校共同訂定並執行,或是由教育部訂定後由縣市政府及學校執行之模式。 八、在政策執行策略方面,應強調政策、人員、資源及配合度等四大因素二十項執行策略的落實。 九、為提升政策執行成效及滿意程度,應將學校層級及性別因素列為重要影響因子,從中尋求提高成效及滿意度的方法。 貳、對教育行政機關的建議 一、 增加政策內容及執行狀況的宣導活動 二、 提供基層執行單位的協助管道 三、 政策內容應廣徵外籍配偶家庭及基層執行者意見 四、 建立成員正確績效責任觀,落實政策執行的評鑑工作 五、 設立專責單位,以統合不同團體或單位的力量 六、宜由中央政府進行外籍配偶子女現況的普查及比較活動,以確定外籍配偶子女現況 七、補助宜考量各縣市外籍配偶子女就學人數比率及城鄉差距的事實 八、培養外籍配偶家庭正確的補助觀念 參、對學校的建議 一、發揮輔導室功用,建立靈活的志工制度,達成資源共享的目的 二、提高學校成員對教育的熱忱與奉獻度 三、政策執行過程應強調自然及無差別對待 四、善用社福團體的力量,提供學校人員暢通的協詢管道 五、重視學童學業表現外的偏差行為之矯正活動 肆、對進一步研究的建議 一、 針對外籍配偶子女教育政策,進行推動後的績效責任評鑑及改進狀況研究。 二、 採取縱貫性研究,以瞭解外籍配偶子女在各方面的進步情況及趨勢。 三、 深入探討外籍配偶子女教育政策制定過程,以瞭解政策形成的背景因素、政策立論基礎及權力互動等因素。 四、 探討未來師資培育過程中,如何兼顧多元文化素養的培養,及提供滿足外籍配偶子女教育的師資訴求。
The main purpose of this study is to explore the situation of foreign spouses’ children in the phase of public education and the bases of educational policy theories, the contents and the practice of public education policy of foreign spouses’ children, the practice problem and the response strategy of public education policy of foreign spouses’ children. Based upon the research findings, suggestions would be offered. This study is accomplished with the process of literature analysis, questionnaires and interviews. Based on the literature analysis, it helps to offer the fundamental and theoretical guidelines for research. The “Questionnaire for public education policy of foreign spouses’ children in Taiwan” and interviews are later used for investigating on the current situation and opinions to collect information about these children. The survey is conducted with 1,199 copies issued and with 837 effective copies returned. A total of 16 people are interviewed, including education administration staffs, school staffs, professionals, and so forth. Form the information of literature analysis, questionnaire and interview investigations, the conclusions are as following: 1. The numbers of foreign spouses’ children in Taiwan have been sharply increased. The number of these pupils studied in elementary schools than junior high schools in Taiwan, and mainly in counties of midland, south, and island. 2. Foreign spouses’ children face some serious educational problems, including academic performance, learning attitude, language communication, and so on. 3. These problems of pupils came from surroundings after their birth. But there are some factors to make problems for them, like families, the government, the society, schools, and children themselves. Among all, families are most important. 4. We can implement a lot of educational policies on public education for these children. However we don’t implement these policies well, except academic guidance, routine discipline, and so on. 5. When we make educational policies, we must fallow five principles: keep correct rules, meet all demand, respect the difference, keep equality of opportunity, and consider all factors. Today we just only keep equality of opportunity better. 6. Now, we don’t satisfy with the educational policy contents of foreign spouses’ children except the level of schools. 7. Our government should bear heavy responsibilities of these children’s educational expenditure. 8. The rules and ways of how to use money are not built, and they don’t have correct attitude and recognition at all. 9. They can influence the implementation of educational policies, like educational administration staffs, school staffs, parents, mass media, and so on. But the influence of the community is very low. 10. Many people, like colleague, can help us to resolve the difficulties when we face some trouble. And the more you find their help, the better you get the feedback. 11. There are two good ways to implement educational policies of these children which is Ministry of education, Bureaus of education, and schools to make and implement educational policies together, or Ministry of education to make decision, Bureaus of education and schools to implement. 12. Now, we don’t satisfy with the educational policy practice of foreign spouses’ children except the level of schools. 13. There are twenty important strategies to implement policies. But they don’t work well. 14. People with different background have much of a muchness idea about these children’s educational situations and policies. Finally, based upon the research findings, suggestions are as following: 1. Common suggestions: (1) Put focus on academic performance, learning attitude, language communication, and so on. (2) Resolve the problem of family factor at first. (3) Improve homepage, student human relations, routine discipline, and so on. (4) Practice five principles. (5) Build correct attitude and bear these children’s educational expenditure by government. (6) Stress the power and influence of communities, professionals, and so on. (7) Make and implement educational policies together. (8) Emphasize the practice on twenty strategies. (9) Notice factors of school levels and genders. 2. Suggestions to educational administrations: (1) Increase advertisements of policy contents and situations. (2) Give service ways to executors. (3) Ask opinions of foreign spouses’ families and executors. (4) Build the correct accountability of staffs and evaluation of policies. (5) Set up a special unit. (6) Take a census about their performance. (7) Consider the rates and difference of these children if we want to give them subsidization. (8) Build the correct attitude and recognition of these families. 3. Suggestions to Schools: (1) Exploit Counselors’ Office function. (2) Increase the enthusiasm of school staffs. (3) Stress natural and indiscriminating treatment. (4) Use the power of foundations to give school staffs abidance ways. (5) Notice the deviance of these children except academic performance. 4. Suggestions to further research: (1) Study the accountability and evaluation of educational policies of foreign spouses’ children. (2) Take a longitudinal study of these children. (3) Explore the decision-making process of educational policies. (4) Explore how to nurture right teachers for these children.
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