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The logic of practice in a "leadership field": A case study of school-based curriculum development in a high school
Julian Heng-Chang Liu
professional learning communities
field of restricted production
教師社群的實作連結了科層組織的校長領導與專業組織的教師領導，共同構成學校的「領導場域」。本研究深入探討「領導場域」中，反映各個教師社群的基本信念與假設的訴求績效表現與其他學校競爭的「維生 – 經濟性」實作邏輯、訴求課程與教學以促進學生學習的「創造 – 教育本質」、以及訴求學校成員關係與情誼的「互動 – 集體情感」實作邏輯等三種實作邏輯，這三種實作邏輯在「領導場域」中競逐組織的合法性原則。
本研究在「領導場域」與實作邏輯的探討中，借助Bourdieu的實作理論與關連性分析視框作為思考工具（a set of thinking tool），觀察組織運作中校長與教師領導等各自展現策略與行動，瞭解組織成員帶進場域的慣習與資本，在不同的位置上互相作用與影響，形塑組織的慣習與組織內運作的邏輯。然而組織外部政策、經濟、社會環境的影響從未停歇，加上成員在組織內部與其他成員區分化的驅力，組織內外的作用力與交互作用改變了組織運作的邏輯，進而產生重塑組織慣習的可能。
教師社群中的學習通常以兩種模式進行，其一是重視「理論邏輯」的「工作坊模式」的產出常常是「知道（to know）」。其二是著眼於「實作邏輯」的「學習共同體模式」較可能產出「去作（to be）」的成效。「學習共同體模式」的特徵包括現場的協同性實作，藉著「實例領導」降低教師的抗力，以「對症下藥」選取合宜理論等方式連結實務與理論。
在「領導場域」的三種實作邏輯中，「維生 – 經濟性」實作邏輯源自於「為學校好」的價值導向，肇因於少子化與十二年國教啟動的學校間競爭，個案學校加入國科會高瞻計畫取得經費，以創新課程為學校博取聲譽。「創造 – 教育本質」實作邏輯源自「為學生好」的價值導向，展現於教師自發性的形成社群，吸引各學科教師加入分享實務。而「互動 – 集體情感」實作邏輯源於「為老師好」的價值導向，則是衍生於教師發揮社會資本組成社群，以同事間的平等與情誼為先，避免產生同儕階級差異的同理心以及「做學校主人」的歸屬感。
本研究發現教師社群的三種實作邏輯有共存、互補與制衡的關係，在學校組織中互有消長。教育終究是人的志業，「維生 – 經濟性」實作邏輯源自對學校的情感、「創造 – 教育本質」實作邏輯源自對學生的情感，人的情感是三種實作邏輯共同的源頭。集體情感往往在權力僵持與成員階級差異化時湧現，默默地修復「領導場域」中價值的失衡。因此，本研究呼籲學校領導應關注集體情感如沉潛的洋流，在學校多元價值競逐中巨大的影響力。|
This research studies the interactions between leadership and external/internal organizational relationships during the change of curriculum and instruction developed by professional learning communities (“PLCs”) at a public high school. Following the grounded theory approach, this research analysed documents, observations and interviews collected in the research. The researcher has identified that practice shaped by both top-down and bottom-up professional learning communities could initiate the momentum to untie the rigid administrative leadership and release the fragmented department structure, and then facilitate the change in curriculum and instruction. The practice of PLCs connected principal leadership in the bureaucratic organization and teacher leadership in the professional organization, thus forming the ‘leadership field’ of the school. This research inquired in-depth the three ‘logic of practice’ that reflecting the underlying belief and assumption of PLC practice in the ‘leadership field’. They are the ‘survival-economic’ logic of practice concerning performance and competition against other schools, the ‘creation-educational essence’ logic of practice concerning enhancement of student learning through curriculum and instruction, and the ‘interaction-collective emotions’ logic of practice concerning relationship and emotions of school members. These three logic of practice competed against each other for the principle of legitimacy in the ‘leadership field’. In the course of exploring ‘leadership field’ and ‘logic of practice’, the researcher borrows Bourdieu’s theory of practice and relational analysis framework as a set of thinking tool to observe the strategies and actions principal and teacher leaders exerting in organization operation, to understand the habitus and capital members brought in the field and interactions between them on different positions, and to structure organizational habitus and logic of practice. As the influence from external policy, economic, and social environment never stops, also because the drives pushing organizational members to distinguish from others, those forces inside and outside of the organization and their interaction change the organizational logic of practice, and generate the possibility to reshaping organizational habitus. For individual PLCs, this research proved that a well operated PLC is a powerful way to develop teacher professionalism, to improve student learning, to form shared vision and purpose, and to enhance school change. This research further discovered that the conditions shaping PLC a sustainably effective influence in school include teachers’ participation situated in practice, principal’s protection of teachers’ autonomy to creation, and that PLC teacher leader brings about trust and an atmosphere of collective emotions. The professional development in PLCs normally is conducted in either the ’workshop model’ focusing on ’logic of theory’ that resulting in ‘knowing about’, or the ‘learning community’ model focusing on ‘logic of practice’ that resulting in ‘becoming’. ‘Learning community’ model relied on collaborative practice situated in classrooms, ‘leading by examples’ to reducing teachers’ resistance, and a ‘plug and play’ method to select and apply theory. The researcher would emphasize that ‘plug and play’ also played an important role in connecting theory and practice. The ‘leadership field’ is structured by formal school organization and several PLCs. Due to the lack of concrete ties between the principal and PLCs teacher leaders, the communication of beliefs and practice among them relies on the knots of relational ties in the field. ‘Leadership field’ indicates a tendency shifting from ‘consensus discourse’ to ‘politics of difference’, where the former represents an administrative led group regulation fashion while the latter includes individual needs and different ideologies. Relational tie also becomes the bridge between administrative organization and individual PLCs, and between the individual PLCs and the whole school community. This research discovers that the knots of relational tie are comprised primarily of administratives possessing rich social capital and teachers embracing collective emotions. Among the three logic of practice, the ‘survival-economic’ logic of practice originates from the value ‘for the sake of school’. The case study school opted to participate in the ‘High scope’ program for acquiring financial aids to develop innovated curriculum and instruction to build up school reputation for competition against other schools. The ‘creation-education essence’ logic of practice originates from the value ‘for the sake of students’. It is demonstrated in the process when teachers formed PLCs spontaneously and drew other teachers to participate and share practice in the community. The ‘interaction-collective emotions’ logic of practice originates from the value ‘for the sake of teachers’. It is derived from teacher’s social capital, the ‘owners of school’ kind of sense of belonging, the empathy against class difference among colleagues, and emphasized the importance of the equality and emotions among colleagues. This research finds that three logic of practice are co-existed, complementary, and counter-balanced. Education eventually is a human enterprise. The ‘survival-economic’ logic of practice derives from emotions toward school. The ‘creation-educational essence’ logic of practice derives from emotions toward students. Human emotions are the source of all three logic of practice. The collective emotions often emerge when power struggle causes impasse or when school members are discriminated by class difference, and then implicitly amend the imbalance of values in the ‘leadership field’. Therefore, the researcher would like to urge that school leaders pay attention to the enormous strength of collective emotions, like the ocean current underneath the sea level, which can powerfully influence the competition of diversified values in school.
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