校外教學風險管理與法律責任之研究 The study of risk management and legal liability which is concerning of outschool education.

Chia-Hui Huang
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本研究旨在探討國民中學校外教學相關人員的實務經驗中,籌辦活動的過程是否具有風險管理與法律責任的觀念。本研究係採用文獻分析與質性研究方法,以立意取樣的方式,選取九位分別來自不同單位的導師、行政人員、旅行業者為研究參與者,透過半結構式的深度訪談為主要的資料蒐集方式,並以事先擬定的訪談大綱為研究工具,透過與研究參與者建立信任關係、三角檢正、研究參與者檢核、同儕審視、厚實敘寫等方式建立本研究的信實度。研究發現如下: 一、校外教學的籌備流程明確,也注重行前說明會與事後檢討會,外包時旅行業者的參與時機應合法。 二、導師清楚自己應在活動前慎選旅行社,活動中照護學生,與事發時聯繫告知家長的義務;行政人員了解自己擔負統籌規劃與指揮領導角色;旅行業者認同自己承包活動也承擔所有責任。 三、意外事故的經驗中多為小型傷害,重大傷亡機率不高,且已有一套緊急處理的標準作業程序,並注重回報機制。 四、研究參與者都認為風險是無法預測的,也了解校園內風險類型眾多,因此在風險管理策略上首重預防。 五、在辦理校外教學的經驗中,研究參與者了解其風險包含各方面,在事前能採取適當的避免、轉移或降低風險的相關策略。 六、研究參與者對民刑事責任有基本概念,其責任歸屬依合約判定,但對自身可能被追究法律責任缺乏警覺性,也未提及行政上的責任。 七、校外教學的困境包括活動缺乏教育意義;費用過高,部分學生無力負擔;招標方式可能影響服務品質;人數太多限制活動的多元性。 八、校外教學的風險管理方法主要在於學校應充分規劃及掌握一切資訊,落實責任分工;加強對學生的宣導與家長的溝通;慎選合法業者;教育主管機關的支持與宣導;訂定校外教學和意外事故標準作業流程的重要;旅行業者對相關廠商的審查與掌控。 根據研究結果,研究者提出建議如下: 一、對主管機關的建議 (一)確實要求並審查各級學校訂定校外教學安全標準作業流程 (二)集結校外教學相關案例,並擬定處理流程 (三)辦理風險管理與法律知能相關之研習 (四)確實督導並審核合法優良的旅行業者 二、對學校行政單位的建議 (一)確實擬定校外教學安全標準作業程序 (二)善用家長資源 (三)考量活動人數,活動設計融入教育意義 三、對國民中學教師的建議 (一)自我充實校外教學相關知能 (二)正視風險管理與了解自身責任,勿因委外而心態鬆懈 二、對後續研究者的建議 (一)研究對象:可擴大至其他教育階段,如國小、高中、大學或私立學校,探討相關人員之實務經驗,也可以針對曾發生重大意外事故的學校,進行相關之研究。 (二)研究方法:建議可採用「焦點團體法」,透過現場對話,使研究參與者可以獲得立即的回饋,增進相關知能。 (三)研究範圍:可將全省分北、中、南、東區學校進行訪談,從經驗中加以比較其間之異同。
The purpose of this study was to explore in the process of organizing the outdoor education of junior high school, the related personnel have the concept of risk management and legal liability. The study was a literature analysis and qualitative research by means of semi-structured in-depth interview. Through purposive sampling, nine advisers, who came from different unit of teacher, Administrative staff, travel industry, had been selected as research participants. And take the interviews with pre-prepared outline as the research tool. For establishment of the trustworthiness, the methods of developing trust relationship with participants, triangulation , member check, peer reviewing, and thick description were employed. The findings of the research are as follow: 1. The preparatory process of outschool education should be clear, it will also focus on the illustration meeting and the debriefing, the joining opportunity of the travel agency must be legal. 2. The instructors should be aware that he must be discreet to select the travel, and take care of students in the activities, and contact with parents when something happened. The administrative staff is responsible for “overall planning” and “command leadership”. The travel agency approval that they contract outschool education and also undertake all responsibility. 3. The experience in accident is mostly minor injuries, and it has a set of standard procedures for emergency treatment, and it also focus on the return messages. 4. The participants all agree that the risk is unpredictable, and they understand that there are many types of risk on campus. Therefore,it focus on prevention above all in the risk management strategy. 5. The Experience in the organization of outdoor education, the participants understand that risk is included all aspects. And they take the suitable strategy to avoidance, transfer or reduce the risk . 6. The participants have the basic concept for the civil liability and criminal responsibility, and the attribution of responsibility determined in accordance with contract. But they lack of vigilance about to be held legal responsibility possibly. They also have not mention the administrative responsibility. 7.Outschool education in question includes lacking of educational activities. The expense is too high that cause some students cannot afford. Tender may affect the quality of service. And the population are too many to limit the plurality of activities. 8. Risk management method of outdoor education is mainly in the school should be fully plan the activity and hand of all the information, and implement the division of responsibilities. Strengthen advocacy for students and communication for parents. Chooses the legal travel agency carefully. Educational authority’s support and advocacy. It’s important to make the standard operating procedures of outschool education and handling accidents. Travel agency should investigate and control the related companies carefully. According to the results of the study, some suggestions are listed as follows: 1. For official government organizations: (1)Truly request and review each school to make the Security standard operating procedures of outschool education. (2) Compile the case studies of accidents about outschool education, and draw up the processing flow. (3) Provide more workshops about risk management and the legal liability. (4) Supervise and review the lawful and quality travel agency truly. 2. For school administrative units: (1) Draws up the standard operating procedures of outschool education truly. (2) Utilize the resources of the parents. (3) Consider the number of participants,and activities should be designed to integrate into the educational value. 3. For junior high school teachers: (1) Enrich the knowledge and abilities of outschool education. (2) Focus on the risk management and understand their responsibilities, do not entrust outsourcing vendors and cause the lax attitude. 4. For future studies: (1)About the objects of study: The follow-on researchers can broaden the ranges of objects to other stages of education, such as elementary, high school, university or private school, and probe practical experience of relevant personnel. We could also have occurred for the major accidents schools to conduct related research. (2)About the methods of study: The follow-on researchers can use "focus groups", it can live through a dialogue for participants to get immediate feedback and promote relevant knowledge. (3) About the range of study: The province can be divided into northern, central, southern and eastern of schools to interview, and compare with among the different experience.
校外教學, 風險管理, outschool education(outdoor education), risk management